PeruginoPietro Vannucci, called Il Perugino (‘the Perugian’). His family was from Castel (now Città) della Pieve, a town near Chiusi which had been under Perugia’s control since 1198. According to Vasari, he was 78 when he died, implying that he was born in about 1445; while according to Giovanni Santi he was the same age as Leonardo da Vinci, who was born in 1452. Vasari emphasizes Perugino’s humble origins, but his family was probably reasonably well off as it enjoyed citizenship rights. Vasari says that he was apprenticed to some inferior Perugian painter (whom he does not name) but subsequently trained in Verrocchio’s Florentine bottega. (Vasari also says that a ‘Piero da Castel della Pieve’ was a pupil of Piero della Francesca at Arezzo, but, contrary to a common assumption, this Piero seems not to have been Perugino but another artist altogether.) Perugino was certainly in Florence by 1472, when he enrolled there in the Compagnia di San Luca. A number of panel paintings (including Madonnas, apparently based on Verrocchio’s designs, at Berlin, the London National Gallery and Courtauld Institute) have been sometimes claimed as products of Perugino’s hand during his time in Verrocchio’s studio; but the earliest work that can be securely attributed to him is a fragmentary fresco, dated 1478, at Cerqueto, just south of Perugia.
He was mainly in Rome in 1479-85, where he frescoed for Sixtus IV the apse of the Cappella del Coro in the Old St Peter’s, worked with Botticelli, Ghirlandaio and Cosimo Rosselli in the Sistine Chapel, and worked on banners and temporary decorations for the coronation of Innocent VIII. For the next twenty-five years he divided his time mainly between Florence and Perugia. Between 1487 and 1511 he rented a studio in the Via San Giglio in Florence (across from Santa Maria Novella), which was celebrated as the place where Ghiberti had cast the Gates of Paradise. From 1501 he began renting a studio in Perugia as well (in the Palazzo Nuovo dell’Ospedale della Misericordia). For a time, he was probably the most popular painter in Italy. As well as works (fresco cycles, altarpieces, smaller devotional pictures and a few portraits) for patrons in Florence and Perugia, he attracted commissions from Orvieto (1490), Rome (1490 and 1491), Lucca (1494), Cremona (1494), Venice (1494 and 1495), Pavia (1496), Fano (1497), Sinigaglia (about 1497), Bologna (about 1497), Siena (1502), Mantua (1503), and Naples (about 1508). He was called to Rome again in 1508 to participate with Sodoma, Signorelli and others in the decoration of the Vatican Stanze, but he was soon dismissed by Julius II, who entrusted all the work to his former pupil Raphael. He spent his last years in the less critical milieu of his native Umbria, working for patrons in Perugia and in nearby towns such as Bettona (1512), Corciano (1512), his native Città della Pieve (1514 and 1517), Montefalco (1515), Trevi (1521), Spello (1521), and Fontignano, where he died of the plague in February 1523.
Perugino’s art is static, quiet and pious. Sweet-faced Madonnas, and saints with tilted heads and drooping postures, are represented against flowing landscapes under gentle light. The ‘sweetness in the blending of colours’ praised by Vasari was achieved using a remarkable (for a central Italian painter) oil technique with an elaborate build-up of glazes. The output from his studios in Florence and Perugia was prodigious. Drawings and cartoons were reused to repeat figures, heads, poses and even whole compositions. He made very considerable use of assistants and collaborators. His assistants in Florence included Lo Spagna (Giovanni di Pietro), Gerino da Pistoia, Rocco Zoppo (best known for painting portraits according to Vasari) and Bacchiacca. His assistants in Perugia included Andrea Alovigi (called Andrea d’Assisi or L’Ingegno, who Vasari says helped Perugino on his most important commissions), Eusebio da San Giorgio (who completed the vast Sant’Agostino Altarpiece after Perugino’s death), Giannicola di Paolo (called Smicca and, erroneously, Manni), Giovann Battista Caporali, Giovanni di Francesco Ciambello (called Il Fantasia) and Roberto da Montevarchi. Raphael was probably his pupil in the late 1490s.
Altenburg. Lindenau Museum.
Blessed Francis of Siena; Saint Helen. Wood, 158 x 65.
The Blessed Francis of Siena (Beato Francesco Patrizi) was an early fourteenth-century Servite preacher famed for his devotion to the Virgin Mary. He holds a lily and book, and was previously misidentified as St Anthony of Padua. St Helen holds a tiny cross, along with a book, in her left hand. The two panels belonged to the huge double-sided altarpiece painted in 1503-7 for the high altar of Santissima Annunziata in Florence. They flanked the Assumption on the back of the altarpiece which is still in the church. On the front, the Deposition (Academia, Florence), which was started by Filippino Lippi, was flanked by panels of St John the Baptist and St Lucy (Metropolitan Museum, New York). On the two ends were panels (now cut down) of St Filippo Benizzi (Galleria Nazionale, Rome) and St Catherine of Alexandria (private collection). Bought by von Lindenau in 1848 from Ludwig Metzger of Florence (who also owned the two panels now in New York).
Assisi. Santa Maria degli Angeli. Cappella degli Porziuncola
Fragment of a fresco of the Crucifixion.
The Porziuncola, now covered by the immense Baroque edifice of Santa Maria degli Angeli, is the little rustic chapel that St Francis rebuilt and where his first disciples gathered. Vasari says that Perugino painted 'in fresco, a Christ on the Cross, with many figures, on the wall at the back of the chapel'. The upper part of the fresco was probably destroyed in 1569, when the fifteenth-century choir, built against the apse of the Porziuncola, was demolished. The surviving lower part of the fresco was recovered from whitewash in 1830 and then completely repainted. It shows a group of the fainting Virgin and Maries, similar to that added by Perugino to Filippino Lippi’s Deposition (Accademia, Florence). The execution may be at least partly by Andrea d’Assisi (L’Ingegno), who Vasari says assisted Perugino in the Sistine Chapel and Cambio and at Assisi. Restored in 1998, when some of the nineteenth-century repaint was removed.
An Annunciation frescoed on the apse of the Porziuncola was also discovered under whitewash in the early nineteenth century and subsequently repainted. The figures of the Angel and Virgin were detached from the wall in 1975 and are now displayed in the Museo della Portiuncula.
Assisi. Oratorio dei Pellegrini.
Saint Ansanus. Fresco.
The figure is frescoed on the inside wall of the façade, in a corner to the right of the door. The youthful, fair-haired saint holds his lungs, heart and liver suspended from his finger – a reference to his gruesome martyr's death. The fresco was attributed by Berenson (1897) to Perugino's slightly older Perugian contemporary Fiorenzo di Lorenzo. It is now usually given either to Perugino, as an early work, or to the shadowy Andrea d'Assisi, who is documented in Perugino's workshop in the 1480s and assisted him in the Sistine Chapel. The Saint Ansanus is strikingly similar in style to some subsidiary figures in Perugino's Sistine Chapel fresco of the Baptism of Christ.
The figure of Saint James of Campostella, frescoed to the left of the door, is sometimes thought to be by the same hand as the Saint Ansanus.
Baltimore. Walters Art Gallery.
Madonna and Child. Wood, 63 x 49.
A little known late work (about 1520), freely painted and vividly coloured. It is said to have come from the collections of the Grand Dukes of Tuscany and the Duke of Lucca. Sold in 1903 with the collection of Mrs Susan Clarke Warren (widow of the Boston paper manufacturer Samuel Dennis Warren). Acquired by Henry Walters by 1909.
Bergamo. Accademia Carrara.
Nativity. Wood, 35 x 45.
Perugino and his prolific workshop repeated this composition many times. Essentially the same scene appears, for example, in a large fresco in the Cambio at Perugia and in a small predella panel in the Chicago Art Institute. The Bergamo panel, which is similar in size to the one at Chicago, was probably produced in Perugino's workshop in the early 1500s. Bequeathed with the Lochis collection in 1859.
Last Supper. Wood, 18 x 121.
Dated 1500 on the right. The predella of the Pala Tezi, painted for the Cappella dei Tezi in the church of Sant’Agostino at Perugia. The composition resembles that of the Last Supper in the Cenacolo di Foligno at Florence, and the execution is ascribed to Perugino’s studio (Berto di Giovanni?). The predella was probably stolen from Sant'Agostino during the French occupation of Perugia in 1797. It was acquired at Frankfurt for the Berlin Museum in 1883 (with an attribution to Gerino da Pistoia). The Last Supper was reunited with the main panel of the altarpiece for the exhibition (Perugino: Il Divin Pittore) in Perugia in 2004.
Bettona (20 km south-east of Perugia). Museo Civico (Palazzo del Podestà).
Votive Portrait of Bartolomeo Maraglia. Canvas, 143 x 68.
Apparently a banner, carried in processions. Worn and abraded (particularly towards the bottom), and retouched. Bartolomeo Maraglia was a Perugian captain, under Giampaolo Baglioni, who fought against the French. As the inscription states, the picture was ordered to honour a vow made when he was taken prisoner on 11 February 1512 at the Battle of Marignano. He is shown as a tiny kneeling figure in full armour, looking up at a life-size St Anthony who holds a book in one hand and the fire in the other. The inscription also gives Perugino’s name. From Sant’Antonio, the church of the Minorites at Bettona.
‘Madonna della Misericordia’. Wood, 201 x 147.
The Madonna, between St Manno and St Jerome, protects tiny male and female figures under her cloak. There is an aged male donor, dressed in grey, on the left. A late work, also from the church of the Minorites at Bettona.
The two paintings by Perugino were stolen from the little museum in 1987. They were discovered in Jamaica and returned to Bettona in 1990.
Birmingham (Alabama). Museum of Art.
Saint Bartholomew. Wood, 90 x 72.
A panel from the front of the huge double-sided altarpiece ordered in 1512 for the church of Sant’Agostino at Perugia and unfinished at Perugino’s death in 1523. The altarpiece was taken apart in Napoleonic times, and the St Bartholomew is recorded in 1850 in a French private collection, together with the tondo of St Paul (?) which is now in the Louvre. Acquired by Samuel H. Kress in 1938, and given to the Birmingham Museum in 1952.
Bologna. Pinacoteca Nazionale.
Madonna in Glory with Saints. Wood, 276 x 213.
The Virgin and Child, framed in a mandorla of cherubs' heads and flanked by a pair of adoring angels in flight, appear to four life-size saints in a landscape. A youthful St Michael, similar to the figure in the nearly contemporary Certosa altarpiece (now in the London National Gallery), wears fanciful Roman armour and leans on an elaborately decorated shield. Catherine of Alexandria, gazing in adoration at the heavenly vision, is identified by the wheel on the ground behind her. St Apollonia holds a book and pair of pincers, and John the Evangelist is identified by the eagle on the ground beside him. Signed on the rim of St Catherine's wheel. This richly coloured altarpiece was painted in, or a little after, 1497, when Perugino was at the height of his powers. It hung in the Cappella Vizzani (or Scarani) in the church of San Giovanni in Monte at Bologna. Plundered by the French in 1796 and returned to Bologna in 1815.
Bordeaux. Musée des Beaux-Arts.
Madonna enthroned with Saints and Angels. Canvas, 217 x 185.
The Virgin is enthroned in an exedra with a semi-dome shaped like a scallop shell. St Jerome as a cardinal on the left, St Augustine as a bishop on the right. Pairs of angels kneel on clouds in the upper corners. Commissioned, according to Vasari, by Benedetto Calera (Capra), a celebrated jurist, for the chapel of St Nicholas in the church of Sant’Agostino at Perugia. The altarpiece originally had a predella with three scenes from the Life of St Nicholas of Tolentino. Requisitioned by the French in 1797 and sent to Bordeaux in 1803. The execution is partly by Perugino’s studio (Giovanni Battista Caporali?).
Caen. Musée des Beaux-Arts.
Marriage of the Virgin (Sposalizio). Wood, 234 x 185.
The picture shows Joseph placing the ring on the Virgin's finger. According to the Golden Legend, the Virgin's suitors had to bring rods to the temple and the suitor whose rod burst into flower was to be the one chosen. Joseph holds the rod that has flowered. To the left, an unsuccessful suitor breaks his rod over his knee. As in the famous fresco of the Giving of the Keys in the Sistine Chapel, Perugino has set the scene in a great piazza with an octagonal temple in the centre and the figures are arranged like a frieze along the bottom of the picture. The picture was painted for the altar of the Cappella del Santo Anello in the cathedral at Perugia. The chapel houses the supposed wedding ring of the Virgin, brought to Perugia in 1473 by a friar, Winterio di Magouza, who had ‘piously stolen it’ from Chiusi. On16 September 1489, the Company of San Guiseppe ordered the altarpiece from Pintoricchio, who failed to deliver. On 11 April 1499, the commission was given to Perugino, but the painting was still unfinished in December 1503. Raphael painted his similar picture of the Sposalizio (now in the Brera) for San Francesco in Città di Castello in 1504. Berenson (1902) controversially argued that the Caen picture was by Lo Spagna, and a copy of Raphael’s picture rather than the prototype. It has long since been reassigned to Perugino, but the execution may be largely by his studio. One of thirty-two pictures from Perugia (twelve by Perugino) carried off by the French in 1797. Dispatched to Caen in 1804. The French neoclassical artist Jean-Baptiste Wicar painted a substitute in 1825: his version of the Marriage of the Virgin remains in the chapel in Perugia Cathedral.
Saint Jerome. Wood, 90 x 74.
The saint kneels penitent before a crucifix, his lion close by and his large red cardinal’s hat hanging from the tree. Signed at the foot of the cross. This panel is traditionally believed to have come from the great altarpiece of Sant’Agostino at Perugia, but it is in fact recorded at Fontainebleau as early as 1625 and may have been acquired by Louis XII in Perugino’s lifetime. Transferred to Caen in 1804. Sometimes ascribed to Perugino’s studio, it has been dated as early as 1498 and as late as 1516.
Cerqueto (22 km from Perugia). Church (Santa Maria).
Saint Sebastian. Fresco, 170 x 102.
Perugino’s earliest securely attributed and dated work: a (modern) inscription gives his name and the year 1478. It is all that remains of a series of frescoes. It was reduced in size when the church was refurbished in the eighteenth century, and only fragments remain of the figures of SS. Roch and Peter at the sides.
Chantilly. Musée Condé.
Madonna with Saints Jerome and Peter. Wood, 145 x 128.
From the church of San Gerolamo at Lucca. Later in the collections of the Duke of Lucca, Lord Northwick and the Duc d’Aumale. The execution is probably by a workshop collaborator (Andrea d’Assisi or Rocco Zoppo?).
Chicago. Art Institute.
Four predella panels. Canvas (transferred from panel), each 27 x 43.
The Nativity, Baptism, Christ and the Woman of Samaria and Noli me Tangere. Bequeathed to the Art Institute by Martin Ryerson in 1933. A fifth panel of the Resurrection (which was also in the nineteenth-century London collections of Alexander Barker and the Earl of Dudley) is in the Metropolitan Museum, New York. The predella is thought to have come from an altarpiece painted early in the sixteenth century (such as the Chigi Crucifixion in Siena or the high altarpiece of Santissima Annunziata in Florence). The Baptism is similar to an earlier predella panel (from the San Pietro Altarpiece of 1496-98) at Rouen.
Città della Pieve. Oratorio dei Santa Maria dei Bianchi.
Adoration of the Magi. Fresco, 650 x 700.
In the background, a view from Città della Pieve towards Lake Trasimeno. We know from two letters, discovered in 1835 and displayed in the oratorio, that the Priori of Città della Pieve asked Perugino in February 1504 what price he would charge to paint an Adoration. Perugino replied that his normal price would be 200 florins but that he would halve the price out of love for his native town. The Priori held out for still better terms, and Perugino eventually, on 1 March, dropped the price to 75 florins (to be paid at a rate of 25 florins a year). The huge fresco (over 20 feet square with about thirty life-size figures) was probably painted in the summer of 1504 (the year inscribed beneath the feet of the Virgin). Restored in 1984.
Città della Pieve. Duomo (San Gervasio).
Virgin in Glory. Wood, 240 x 220.
Still in situ, over the high altar. The Virgin is adored by Saints Protasius, Peter, Paul and Gervasius. The two Umbrian saints hold flags with the arms of Città della Pieve. The altarpiece was ordered in 1513 by Marchisino Cristophori Manni, Prior of San Gervasio, for 120 florins. Signed and dated 1514. Some critics have seen the hand of a local assistant, Giacomo di Gugliemo.
Baptism of Christ. Wood, 210 x 160.
In the Cappella del Rosario. One of eight known versions of this subject by Perugino. Painted for a chapel, dedicated to the Baptist, which was completed by 7 May 1510.
Città della Pieve. Santa Maria dei Servi. Cappella della Compagnia della Stella.
Descent from the Cross. Fresco, 556 x 417.
A fragment: the entire upper middle section was cut away to make a door for a cantoria and part has been lost to damp. The group of the fainting Virgin supported by the two Maries repeats that in the Deposition in the Academia, Florence. On the adjacent wall is a ruined fresco of the Eternal Father and mourning figures around a niche, which once contained a terracotta Pietà. The other two walls are said to have been frescoed with an Annunciation and an Entombment. Dated 1517.
Città della Pieve. San Pietro (formerly San Antonio Abate). Sanctuary.
Saint Anthony. Detached fresco, 700 x 450.
Saint Anthony Abbot, larger than life size, is enthroned between Saints Paul the Hermit and Marcellus. When the church was shaken by an earthquake in 1860, the huge fresco was detached from the wall and transferred to canvas. Very damaged and retouched.
Corciano (near Perugia). Santa Maria.
Assumption. Wood, 226 x 149.
A late work, doubtless painted with a great deal of studio assistance. Most of the Apostles repeat the figures in the Ascension at Lyon. The carpentry was ordered in April 1509 from the wood carver Antonio da Marcatello, who was asked to copy the support and frame of Raphael’s Coronation, painted for the Perugian church of San Francesco al Prato and now in the Vatican. On 18 December 1512, Perugia was commissioned to paint the altarpiece; he, too, was asked to take Raphael’s Coronation as his model. Two panels (each 31 x 78) from the predella survive, representing the Adoration of the Shepherds (similar to an earlier predella panel at Chicago) and the Annunciation.
Madonna and Saints. Wood, 170 x 160.
The Virgin is enthroned between St James and St Augustine. The picture still hangs over the altar of the Roncadelli family (sixth on the south side), where it is recorded early in the sixteenth century. Signed and dated 1494. Apart from the two saints, the picture is a near replica of the San Domenico Altarpiece of 1493 in the Uffizi. It could have been painted on the way to Venice, where Perugino is recorded in 1494 and 1495. Taken to Paris in 1797 and returned in 1817.
Deruta (19 km from Perugia). Pinacoteca.
The Eternal Father with Saints Roch and Romano. Detached fresco, 188 x 127.
The two plague saints stand above an idealised representation of Deruta. The date in the fragmentary inscription has been read as 1476, 1477 or 1478. The fresco is from the local church of San Francesco (first altar on the left), where it was discovered by Crowe and Cavalcaselle behind a modern canvas and attributed to Fiorenzo di Lorenzo. The recent alternative attribution to the young Perugino (either just the head of St Romano or the whole fresco) is based largely on stylistic affinities with the fresco (signed and dated 1478) of Saint Sebastian at Cerqueto. Detached in 1953 and transferred to the local museum. Restored in the late 1990s.
Detroit. Institute of Arts.
Madonna and Child. Wood, 81 x 65.
This panel probably dates from the late 1490s or early 1500s. The pose of the Child, turning to look over his shoulder, and the Virgin’s protective gesture with her left hand are repeated in other Madonnas by Perugino, including one in Washington. First recorded in 1784 in the collection of Francesco Baglioni of Perugia, it was bought in Florence by King Ludwig I of Bavaria in 1831, and was acquired by the State of Bavaria in 1850 for the Munich Gallery (where it was rather harshly described by Giovanni Morelli as ‘feeble and overcleaned’ and by Crowe and Cavalcaselle as ‘not a good production of the master’). It was sold by the Munich Gallery in 1925 and, after passing through the hands of Duveen and J. D. Rockerfeller, was bought by Edsel Ford (son of Henry) in 1932. Bequeathed to the Detroit Institute by his widow, Eleanor Clay Ford, in 1976.
Dublin. National Gallery of Ireland.
Pietà. Wood, 170 x 172.
This much restored picture, signed on Christ’s elbow, is a near replica of the altarpiece painted in about 1493-96 for the convent of the Gesuati and now in the Uffizi. Its original location is unknown. In the eighteenth century it was in the Orléans collection. Purchased at Christie’s in 1931.
Edinburgh. National Gallery of Scotland.
Four Nude Figures. Canvas, 73 x 56.
A fragment from the lower left-hand corner of a composition that was probably four or five times as large. The figure with the lyre on the left could be Apollo. Acquired in Florence by Sir Thomas Gibson from Conte Stefano Bardini, and in the London collection of F. Anthony White from 1902 to1934.
Fano. Santa Maria Nuova.
Virgin and Child. Wood, 262 x 215.
Third altar right. On the left, St John, St Louis of Toulouse and St Francis; on the right, SS. Peter, Paul and Mary Magdalene. In the lunette, the dead Christ is supported by Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, with the Virgin on the left and John the Evangelist on the right. Commissioned by the Franciscans of Santa Maria Nuova on 21 April 1488, but completed nine years later. The step of the throne is inscribed with the name of the patron (‘Matteo de Martinotiis’) and the date 1497. The predella with scenes from the Life of the Virgin (Birth, Presentation, Marriage and Assumption) has sometimes been ascribed to the adolescent Raphael (whose father, Giovanni Santi, painted a Visitation for the church).
Annunciation. Wood, 212 x 172.
Second altar left. Also commissioned on 21 April 1488. The date, in the damaged inscription on the desk before the Virgin, has been read either as 1489 or 1498.
Madonna and Child with Two Saints. Wood, 178 x 164.
The Virgin is enthroned beneath a vaulted arch between SS. Sebastian and John the Baptist. Painted for the chapel of Cornelia di Giovanni Martini Salviati (now the Guadagni Chapel) in the church of San Domenico di Fiesole. The picture is signed and dated 1493, but may have been commissioned as early as 1488 when the chapel was built. It was bought from the church for 1500 crowns by Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldo in 1786, and replaced by a Baptism by Lorenzo di Credi. The composition is repeated (with different saints) in pictures at Vienna (also dated 1493) and Cremona (dated 1494). Vasari says that Perugino won great praise for his figure of St Sebastian, which is repeated in paintings of the saint in Paris, St Petersburg and São Paolo.
Pietà. Wood, 168 x 176.
The dead Christ lies horizontally across the Virgin's lap; his upper body is supported by John the Evangelist and his legs are across the Magdalen's knees. Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea stand at the sides. Painted in about 1493-96 for the Gesuati friars of San Giusto alle Mura, which was just outside the Porta a Pinti, a northern gate to Florence. Vasari says that the prior was very skilled at making ultramarine blues, and the Pietà is notable for its lavish use of this costly pigment. The monastery, which had two cloisters frescoed by Perugino, was demolished in 1529 as the imperial forces under the Prince of Orange advanced upon the city. The Pietà and the Agony in the Garden (also in the Uffizi) were taken to San Giovannino della Calza (or San Giusto), near the Porta Romana. The Pietà was bought by Grand Duchess Maria Maddalena of Austria, consort of Cosimo II, for her chapel at Poggio Imperiale. It was transferred to the Pitti; taken to Paris in 1812; returned in 1814; moved to the Accademia in 1831; and transferred to the Uffizi in 1919. Restored in 1998.
Agony in the Garden. Wood, 166 x 171.
The representation of the subject draws on all four Gospel accounts. The angel, who appears to Christ 'from heaven, strengthening him', is mentioned only in Luke (22: 43). The three sleeping Apostles – Peter, James and John – are named in Matthew (26: 37) and Mark (14: 33). The 'lanterns and torches' held by the High Priest's men are mentioned in John (18: 3). The chalice held by the angel is an allusion to Christ's words: 'O my father, if this cup may not pass away from me, except I drink it, thy will be done' (Matthew 26: 42). According to Vasari, this panel and the Pietà hung over two altars of the rood-screen of the church of the Gesuati convent. It was taken from the Calza convent to the Accademia in the nineteenth century, and transferred to the Uffizi in 1919.
Crucifixion and Saints. Wood, 207 x 183.
Vasari describes the picture clearly in his Life of Perugino (‘a Crucifixion with the Magdalen and, at the foot of the cross, St Jerome, St John the Baptist, and the Blessed Giovanni Colombini’), praising the ‘infinite care’ with which it was painted and stating that it originally hung over the door of the Gesuati convent. However, the style is a puzzling mixture of Perugino and Signorelli, and the picture has sometimes been considered a work of collaboration between the two artists. It seems earlier than Perugino’s other two pictures from San Giusto in the Uffizi, and may date from the late 1470s or early 1480s (either shortly before or after Perugino’s visit to Rome). It was taken to San Giovannino della Calza when the convent was destroyed in 1529, and transferred from there to the Uffizi in 1905.
Portrait of Francesco delle Opere. Wood, 51 x 43.
The scroll bears the motto ‘TIMETE DEUM’ (‘Fear God’) from the Book of Revelation. Francesco di Lorenzo di Piero delle Opere was a Florentine painter born in 1458, a brother of Giovanni delle Corniole who was a famous engraver of gems. He died in Venice in 1496. This superb, exceptionally well-preserved portrait was ascribed to Raphael when it was in the collection of Leopoldo de’ Medici. By the early nineteenth century it was attributed to Perugino, and it hung for some time in the gallery of self-portraits in the Uffizi, until Milanesi deciphered an inscription incised into the back. The inscription also gives the date: 1494 (a year when Perugino visited Venice). A strong Flemish influence has often been noted – the insistent realism, three-quarters pose, full landscape background and smooth, blended brushwork all recalling the portraits of Hans Memling.
Portraits of the Abbate Baldassare and Don Biagio Milanesi. Wood, 28 x 26.
Two companion profile portraits; both looking up; one turned to the right and the other to the left. They were the outer predella panels of the Assumption (now in the Accademia) painted by Perugino for the church of the Abbey of Vallombrosa in 1498-1500. The rest of the predella, including the centre panel showing the Conversion of St John Gualbertus, is lost.
Portrait of a Young Man. Wood, 37 x 26.
An inscription (now almost illegible) on the back of the panel gives the name of the youthful sitter as Alessandro Braccesi who, as secretary to the Signoria in 1497, was chosen to negotiate with Alexander VI for the return of Pisa to Florence. However, Braccesi, who was born in 1445, would have been in his forties or fifties when the portrait was painted (mid-1490s?). Transferred to the Uffizi from the Pitti Palace in 1890 as a work of Lorenzo di Credi, but reattributed the same year by Giovanni Morelli to Perugino.
Self-Portrait (?). Wood, 52 x 37.
First recorded in an Uffizi inventory of 1681, and catalogued until the late eighteenth century as a portrait of Martin Luther by Holbein. The rotund sitter with a skullcap was later supposed to be Andrea Verrocchio (on the strength of an alleged resemblance to the engraving in Vasari’s Lives) and the artist was thought to be his favourite pupil Lorenzo di Credi (who painted Verrocchio’s portrait according to Vasari). His identification as Perugino is based on a rather strong resemblance to the artist’s self-portrait in the frescoes in the Cambio at Perugia. While this identification has been quite often accepted, there has been little agreement about the attribution of the portrait and its date. The old attribution to Credi (who is said to have painted a portrait of Perugino as well as Verrocchio), continued to have supporters (eg. Berenson in his 1909-63 Lists), and was retained in the 1980 Uffizi catalogue. As a self-portrait – an attribution advanced in 1922 (by Venturi) – the picture has been dated as early as about 1480 (when Perugino was only around thirty years old) and as late as about 1500 (when he was around fifty). A theory (published by Richard Offner in 1934) that the picture is a portrait of Perugino painted by his young pupil Raphael in the early 1500s had some success for a time but has been rejected or ignored by all recent critics. Like the Francesco delle Opera, the portrait shows Flemish influence. (Memling’s Portrait of a Young Man in the Metropolitan Museum, New York, has an almost identical three-quarters pose with crossed hands and a similar interior setting with a window vista on the left.) The portrait was given to Raphael in the 2008 exhibition Firenze e Gli Antichi Paesi Bassi at the Pitti Palace.
Assumption. Wood, 415 x 246.
Painted for the high altar of the Romanesque church of the Abbey of Vallombrosa, which was dedicated to La Nostra Donna Assumpta. Beneath the Virgin (seated in a mandorla of cherubim and surrounded by angels) are four Vallombrosan saints: Bernardo degli Uberti, John Gualbertus (holding his crutch), Benedict and Michael. The altarpiece was commissioned by Don Biagio Milanesi, general of the Vallombrosan Order, on the 17 December 1497 and was to have been executed within five months at a total cost of 300 gold florins (including the frame and all expenses). However, the completion date was repeatedly postponed, and the picture was actually painted between August 1498 and July 1500. The altarpiece consisted originally of a rectangular panel crowned by a separate lunette; the two parts were joined together probably either in the eighteenth century, when the high altar was replaced and the Assumption transferred high up on the end wall of the apse, or in Napoleonic times, when the monastery was secularised and the Assumption was transported to France. The elaborate wooden frame (carved by Jacopo di Jacopo Giovanni) is lost, as is the predella, apart from two profile portraits in the Uffizi.
Deposition. Wood, 334 x 225.
Vasari tells how Filippino Lippi courteously surrendered to Leonardo da Vinci a commission from the brothers of Santissima Annunziata for a double-sided high altarpiece. When, however, Leonardo left for France, the Servites again called upon Filippino. On his death in April 1504, only the upper part of the Deposition was painted. On 5 August 1505 Perugino took over the commission for 150 florins. He finished the Deposition, painted the Assumption (which is still in the church) for the back of the altarpiece, and painted six panels of saints for the sides and ends (now dispersed among museums in Altenburg, New York and Rome and a private collection). The work was completed by 4 November 1507, when Perugino’s paintings were evaluated. The altarpiece was the largest of the Florentine Renaissance. The magnificent frame (now destroyed) was carved by Baccio d’Agnolo and gilded by Francesco di Nicolò. It cost 390 florins – nearly double the 200 florins paid to Lippi and Perugino for the paintings.
Crucifixion with the Virgin and St Jerome. Wood, 210 x 168.
The figures of Christ on the cross and the standing Virgin repeat those in the fresco of 1493-96 at Santa Maria Maddalena dei Pazzi. In the background, a view of the towers and spires of Florence. From the high altar of San Girolamo delle Poverine in Florence. When the convent was suppressed in 1864, the picture was taken to the Accademia. In 1922 it was transferred to the Sala del Capitolo of Santa Maria Maddalena dei Pazzi, where it remained (largely inaccessible to the public) for sixty years.
Entombment. Wood, 214 x 195.
The mourners include Joseph of Arimathea (supporting Christ under his arms), Mary Magdalene (holding his head), the Virgin (holding his left arm), Mary Cleophas and Mary Salome (standing with hands raised and kneeling in prayer), Nicodemus (holding the winding sheet at Christ's feet) and John the Evangelist (standing at the right edge). Painted in Florence in 1495 (the date is in gold letters on the stone on which Christ’s body rests) for the church of the Franciscan convent of Santa Chiara in Via dei Serragli. The church – today the Galleria Pio Fedi – was rebuilt in the 1490s by a wool merchant and Savonarolan devotee called Jacopo Bongianni, who had two sisters and a niece at the convent. Perugino's altarpiece was on the right-hand side of the nave, opposite Lorenzo di Credi's Adoration of the Shepherds (now in the Uffizi). Both altarpieces were surmounted by ceramic lunettes by Andrea della Robbia. (These lunettes, representing the Resurrection and the Assumption, are now installed over doorways in the loggia of the Accademia.) Vasari recounts that the rich merchant Francesco del Pugliese offered the nuns three times the price they had paid for Perugino's picture to exchange it for a replica painted by Perugino himself. The offer was rejected, Vasari says, because Perugino told them that he did not think he could equal the original. The picture was taken to Paris by Napoleon in 1799, placed in the Accademia on its return in 1814, and transferred thence to the Pitti Palace in 1834. The composition clearly influenced the Entombments by Fra Bartolommeo and Andrea del Sarto (both also in the Pitti). A beautiful black chalk cartoon for the head of Joseph of Arimathea, squared and pricked for transfer, is preserved at Christ Church, Oxford.
Madonna and Child with the Infant St John and an Angel. Wood, 88 x 86.
The large sack on which the Christ Child sits suggests the flight into Egypt. The picture is an autograph variant of the Madonna in the central panel of the Certosa Altarpiece, now in London. The variant is square rather than vertical, the little St John has been added on the right and three angels have been omitted from the sky overhead. The London panel was executed in or shortly after 1499, and the Pitti version probably dates from around the same time. Though often stated to have come to the Pitti Palace in 1675 with the legacy of Cardinal Leopoldo de’ Medici, it was already in the Medici collections by 1635 (when it is recorded hanging in the Tribuna of the Uffizi). The composition is repeated again in a tondo, ascribed to Perugino’s workshop or a follower, in the Liechtenstein Gallery at Vienna.
The Magdalen. Wood, 47 x 34.
The saint has none of her usual attributes but is identified by an inscription on her dress. The picture, which is like an idealized portrait but was presumably intended for private devotion, probably dates from the late 1490s. It came from the Medici Villa of Poggio Imperiale (where it is recorded in 1641) and (to judge from an old inscription on the back) was once ascribed to Leonardo da Vinci.
Madonna and Child with Two Female Saints. Wood, 77 x 61.
A replica, probably by Perugino’s Florentine workshop, of the signed picture at Vienna. First recorded in 1806, when it was transferred (as a work of Perugino’s school) from the Vasari Corridor to the Pitti Palace.
Florence. Santissima Annunziata. Fourth altar, left.
Assumption. Wood, 333 x 218.
Painted in 1505-7 for the double-sided high altarpiece of the church. It was the main panel on the back, facing the choir. Vasari says that the Servites originally intended the Assumption to face the nave, but decided the finished picture was not worthy to place on the front. But this appears untrue, as it is clear from the contract that the monks always wanted the Deposition (begun by Filippino Lippi), now in the Accademia, for the front. Vasari also says that Perugino was criticised by other artists and lambasted in sonnets for using the same figures over and over again. Most of the Apostles derive from the Lyon Ascension of 1496-98, Perugino perhaps reusing his old cartoons. As early as 1546, the two main panels of the altarpiece were relegated to side altars and replaced by a wooden ciborium. The six side and end panels of saints, which were sold by the Servite monks around 1650, are scattered: two are in Altenberg, two in New York (Metropolitan Museum), one in Rome (Galleria Nazionale) and one in a private collection.
Florence. Cenacolo di Foligno.
Last Supper. Fresco, 435 x 794.
The Franciscan nunnery of Sant’Onofrio in Via Faenza was suppressed in the eighteenth century and the refectory turned into a coach house. Structural alterations in the 1840s led to the discovery of the Last Supper under whitewash. Located in the refectory of a closed order, the fresco is not recorded in early sources. It was attributed to Perugino at first; but an inscription, read as RA…UR… ANNO MDV., on the collar of St Thomas, combined with the fact that the sister of Taddeo Taddei, with whom Raphael lodged at Florence, was a nun at the convent, led in 1845 to an attribution to Raphael. The fresco is now regarded as a work of Perugino and his studio. It has been dated about 1485-93. The assistants principally involved have not been firmly identified, but the most likely candidates are perhaps Lo Spagna (who was associated with Perugino’s Florentine studio by 1492) and Giannicola di Paolo (who painted a similar Last Supper in 1493-96 for the Palazzo dei Priori at Perugia). The names of Gerino da Pistoia, Eusebio da San Giorgio, Rocco Zoppo and Roberto da Montevarchi have also been suggested by different critics. Recently restored.
Florence. Santa Maria Maddalena dei Pazzi.
Crucifixion and Saints. Fresco, 480 x 812.
One of Perugino’s indisputable masterpieces. An illusionary loggia of three arched compartments is created across the whole wall of the chapter house of the former Cistercian convent. In the central compartment is the Crucifixion, the Magdalen kneeling at the foot of the cross; in the left-hand one are figures of the Virgin and St Bernard; and in the right-hand one St John the Evangelist and St Benedict. The fresco was ordered on 20 November 1493 for 55 ducats by Dionigi Pucci and his wife Giovanna, and was finished by 20 April 1496. The fresco narrowly escaped damage in 1966, when the flood water came within four inches of the scene.
The detached fresco of the Crucified Christ appearing to St Bernard (246 x 142) is also described by Vasari in his Life of Perugino, but is now attributed to Perugino’s Florentine workshop or to Raffaellino del Garbo..
The chapter house, which had been closed for some years for restoration, reopened in February 2011. It can be visited on selected days via the neighbouring school (Liceo Classico Michelangiolo, Via della Colonna, 9/11).
Florence. Santa Croce (Medici Chapel).
Saint Anthony of Padua. Wood, 153 x 98.
Late (about 1515), and perhaps partly by an assistant.
Florence. Santo Spirito. Façade.
Pentecost. Stained glass window.
The design of the large stained-glass oculus was attributed to Perugino by Berenson (1909). The window was probably executed by Gesuati monks between 1490 and 1506.
Foligno. Oratorio della Nunziatella.
Baptism of Christ. Fresco, 445 x 228.
The oratory (remodelled in 1830) was built in 1494 to commemorate a miracle attributed to a fresco of the Annunciation by an unknown painter. Perugino's fresco is painted over the altar on the right side of the back wall. The main scene shows St John baptising Christ in the River Jordan. Four angels stand or kneel on the banks of the river, and two more angels (clearly executed by reversing a single cartoon) hover overhead. The lunette above shows the Eternal Father, blessing and holding a globe, between two kneeling angels (also doubtless executed from a single cartoon). An inscription, now partly effaced, on the border beneath the lunette identifies the patron as Giovanni Battista Morganti and gives the date of the fresco (1507?). The Morganti coat-of-arms (two swans) is emblazoned on the stone frame.
Fontignano (21 km from Perugia). Church (Oratory of the Annunziata).
Madonna and Child. Fresco, 135 x 68.
The name of the patron (‘Angniolus Toni Angeli’) and the date 1522 are inscribed on the base of the Virgin’s throne. As Perugino died at Fontignano in February 1523 (his tomb is in the church), his frescoes there are thought to be his last works. Three other frescoes were removed from the walls of the church in 1843. One of these, a Nativity from the chancel arch, is in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. The other two, a St Roch and a St Sebastian from the sides of the arch, are lost.
Madonna and Child with the Infant St John. Wood, 67 x 51.
This small devotional panel was once in the collection of the Bavarian royal family (whose seal is on the back). Acquired by the Institute in 1832. The pose of the Madonna appears in reverse in versions with two saints at Paris, Vienna and Florence (Pitti). The panel probably dates from the 1490s.
Grenoble. Musée de Peinture et de Sculpture.
Saints Sebastian and Irene. Wood, 189 x 95.
One of four large side panels, each showing two saints, from the lower tier of the Sant’Agostino Altarpiece (started in 1512 but unfinished at Perugino’s death in 1523). The others are Jerome and Mary Magdalene (in the gallery at Perugia), James the Less and Herculanus (Lyon) and Augustine and John the Evangelist (Toulouse). The Grenoble panel was on the back, to the left of the Adoration of the Shepherds. Most of the altarpiece is in the gallery at Perugia.
Saint Peter. Wood, 66 x 48.
Half-figure under a garland. Once ascribed to Fiorenzo di Lorenzo; now attributed to a Perugino as a very early work, painted under Verrocchio’s influence. The head of the saint is closely similar to the heads of St Jerome in two pictures – a Pietà with SS. Jerome and Mary Magdalene and a detached fresco of St Jerome in the Desert – attributed to the young Perugino in the gallery at Perugia. From the Kestner collection.
Liverpool. Walker Art Gallery.
Birth of the Virgin. Wood, 19 x 41.
The Virgin's mother, St Anne, lies in her bed, while a midwife and nurse wash and dry the baby. On the left, three women visit the new mother. According to an inscription on the back, this predella panel came from the Casa Pucci at Florence. It was bought by William Roscoe in 1804 for 9 gns and presented by him to the Liverpool Royal Institution. The earliest recorded attribution (1816) was to Fra Angelico. Berenson first proposed Fiorenzo di Lorenzo as the artist, but later, in 1932, gave the picture to the young Perugino. This attribution is now fairly generally accepted. A companion panel, representing the Miracle of the Founding of Santa Maria Maggiore, was also in the 1804 Christie’s sale and is now at Polesden Lacey.
London. National Gallery.
Triptych. Wood, centre panel 127 x 64 and side panels 126 x 58.
The left-hand panel depicts the Archangel Michael, who wears a contemporary suit of black plate armour and stands in an heroic pose evidently taken from Donatello's famous Saint George. The archangel's scales for weighing souls hang from a tree stump. In the centre panel, the Virgin adores the Child, who is supported by an angel, while three other angels hover overhead singing from scrolls of music. The right-hand panel shows the Archangel Raphael with Tobias. A meticulously painted silver fish hangs from Tobias's wrist, while the archangel holds a small box containing the fish gall that cured Tobias's father's blindness. The three panels formed the lower part of an altarpiece painted for the Certosa di Pavia, the great Carthusian monastery patronised by Lodovico il Moro, Duke of Milan. The altarpiece was commissioned before October 1496 but was still unfinished in May 1499, when Lodovico threatened to withdraw the money advanced to Perugino. Perugino painted only one of the three panels for the upper tier – an Eternal Father which is still in situ – and the remaining two (now in Geneva), representing the Annunciation, were executed by Mariotto Albertinelli in 1511. The London panels are painted with extraordinary care. They have been cut at the bottom, removing most of the devil beneath St Michael’s feet and the body of Tobias’s dog. Their original appearance is preserved in the copies that remain in the Certosa. The three panels were removed from the Certosa in 1782, when the Carthusian monastery was suppressed. They were purchased in 1786 by Count Giacomo Melzi of Milan, whose great-great nephew, Duke Lodovico Melzi, sold them to the National Gallery in 1856 for the huge price of 3400 guineas. There are careful metalpoint drawings for the Tobias and the Angel at Oxford (Ashmolean) and for Saint Michael at Windsor.
Virgin and Child and Two Saints ('Madonna di Loreto'). Wood, 186 x 153.
On 8 June 1507, the executors of Giovanni Schiavone, a master carpenter of Perugia, commissioned from Perugino a Virgin and Child, with St Jerome in cardinal’s dress and St Francis, for 47 florins. The contract specified that the image of the Virgin standing with the Child should be similar to the 'Madonna di Loreto' – a venerated fourteenth-century carved wooden sculpture at the holy shrine. The picture was intended for Schiavone’s chapel in Santa Maria dei Servi, but was moved to Santa Maria Nuova in 1542 when the church was demolished. In 1821 it was removed from its chapel by its owner, Baron Fabrizio della Penna, to his palazzo in Perugia and replaced by a copy. (The copy, made by the local painter Giuseppe Carattoli, is still in the church.) Purchased by the National Gallery in 1879 for £3200. Although the contract stipulated that the picture should be completed within four months and should be entirely by Perugino’s own hand, some critics think it is later than 1507 and was executed partly (or largely) by an assistant. In any event, it was evidently executed in some haste, using low cost materials (no ultramarine occurs). The two flying angels were probably taken from the same cartoon (reversed). The original frame is in the gallery at Perugia.
Christ crowned with Thorns. Wood, 40 x 32.
A bust-length devotional image of Christ, crowned with thorns and wearing round his neck the rope with which he was led by Pilate before the hostile crowd. Bequeathed to the National Gallery in 1862 as a work of Lo Spagna. It retained this attribution until 2009, when, following restoration, it was reattributed to Perugino as a mature work of about 1500-5.
Virgin and Child with St John. Wood, 69 x 45.
Purchased by the National Gallery in 1841 from William Beckford of Bath for the high price of £800. John Ruskin, in 1847, described the attribution to Perugino as 'mere insult', but it was accepted by most subsequent critics. The panel was cleaned and restored in 1977, when false corners were detached to reveal the original arched top and a false signature was removed from the hem of the Virgin's mantle. The National Gallery continued to attribute the picture to Perugino until fairly recently, but now classes it as the work of 'a close associate and imitator'.
London. British Museum.
Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian. Miniature on parchment, 20 x 14.
Signed along the bottom. A page from the Hours of Bonaparte Ghislieri, also known as the Albani Missal because it belonged to Cardinal Giovanni Girolamo Albani in the sixteenth century. The book also included miniatures by Amico Aspertini of Bologna, Matteo da Milano and other artists. Sold by the cardinal’s descendents in 1809, it was bought in about 1838 from a shop in Rome for just 22 scudi (about £5) by James Dennistoun of Dennistoun. Dennistoun, who spent two days in the prison of the Castel Sant’Angelo on the charge of stealing the book from the Vatican Library, smuggled it to England disguised as his bank passbook and sold it to the Earl of Ashburnham for £750. In the late 1890s, it was acquired by Sir Henry Yates Thompson, in whose family it remained for many years. Perugino’s miniature, now detached from the rest of the book, probably dates from about 1500.
London. Victoria and Albert Museum.
The Nativity. Fresco (transferred to canvas), 255 x 600.
The fresco, now much damaged and repainted, was over the arch separating the nave and cancel of the Oratory of the Confraternity of the Annunziata (Santa Maria Assunta) at Fontignano. Another fresco by Perugino is still in the church and dated 1522. Having been whitewashed at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Nativity was detached in 1843. It was purchased by the museum in 1862 from William Blundell Spence (an English dealer, painter and travel writer living in Florence). Until 1971 it was on loan to the National Gallery.
London. Hampton Court.
Saint Jerome. Canvas, 87 x 59.
The picture has probably been cut at the bottom, and the whole of the kneeling saint may originally have been seen. Acquired by Queen Victoria in 1845 as a gift for Prince Albert. The attribution has sometimes been doubted, but is accepted by Shearman (1987) who puts forward a comparatively early date of 1483-91 in his catalogue of the early Italian pictures in the Royal Collection.
Lyon. Musée des Beaux-Arts.
The Ascension. Wood (transferred to canvas in 1845), 325 x 265.
The Ascension was the centre panel of a huge altarpiece painted for San Pietro at Perugia. It hung over the high altar, dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul, which housed the relics of St Catherine and the body of St Peter Abbot. Vasari praised it as Perugino’s best work in the city. The contract with the Bendictine monks was signed on 8 March 1495, and Perugino received payments for his work between 18 January 1496 and 23 April 1498. The altarpiece was removed from its original position in 1567, when the high altar was dismantled in the wake of the Counter-Reformation, and split up by about 1591. The Ascension was one of ten panels taken to France in 1797. Most were distributed to French regional museums in the early nineteenth century. While some panels were returned to Italy after Napoleon’s defeat, the Ascension remained in Lyon, and in 1816 Pope Pius VII gave the city authorisation to keep it. The lunette of the altarpiece is also at Lyon, and there are other parts at Nantes (two tondi), Rouen (three predella panels), San Pietro and the Vatican (eight small panels of saints). Eusebio da San Giorgio and Giovanni di Francesco Ciambella acted as witnesses to the contract, and probably assisted in the execution of the altarpiece. There is a workshop replica of the Ascension at Sansepolcro, and some of the apostles are repeated in the Assumptions at Florence (SS. Annunziata), Corciano and Naples.
The Eternal Father and Cherubs. Wood, 130 x 260.
The lunette from the San Pietro Altarpiece. Formerly in the Parisian church of St Gervais, it was reunited with the Ascension in 1952.
St James the Less and St Herculanus. Wood, 173 x 91.
A side panel from the Sant’Agostino Altarpiece. It flanked the Baptism of Christ (now in the Perugia Gallery) on the front lower tier.
Marseille. Musée des Beaux-Arts.
Family of St Anne. Wood, 296 x 259.
The unusual subject represents St Anne, mother of the Virgin Mary, with her three daughters and their children. All the figures (excluding the Madonna and Child) are identified by the names on their haloes. St Anne stands behind the enthroned Virgin, with her hands on her shoulders. Simon Zelotes and Thaddeus are the boys playing with each other on the steps of the throne. Mary Cleophas stands on the left with her sons James the Less (a babe in arms) and Joseph (holding a stick). The elderly Joseph, the Virgin's husband, stands behind them. Mary Salome is on the right with her sons John the Evangelist (in her arms) and James the Great. Joachim, St Anne's elderly husband, stands behind. The picture was the altarpiece of a chapel dedicated to St Anne. The chapel and altarpiece were bequeathed by Angelo Conti, whose will is dated 8 December 1500. The inscription on the pedestal of the Virgin’s throne originally included the date 1502. In poor condition, and sometimes ascribed partly to Perugino’s workshop. Plundered during the Napoleonic occupation from the convent church of Santa Maria degli Angeli (Santa Maria fra Fossi) in Perugia.
Montefalco. San Francesco (now a museum)
Nativity. Fresco, 200 x 300.
Niche left of the entrance. The Nativity is a repetition of the fresco in the Cambio at Perugia, and the Eternal Father in the lunette may be from the same cartoon as the fresco in Foligno. Once regarded as a late work (about 1515), but more recently dated around 1503.
Montefortino. Pinacoteca Civica.
Dead Christ. Wood, 21 in dia.
This small roundel was probably the centre of a predella, which may also have included the mourning Virgin and St John the Evangelist at Raleigh (North Carolina). Thinly and sketchily painted, and very late (about 1520).
Munich. Alte Pinakothek.
The Virgin appearing to St Bernard. Wood, 173 x 170.
The Virgin, accompanied by two angels, appears in a vision to St Bernard, who is seated at his desk in a Renaissance loggia. St Bartholomew (with knife) and St Philip (with cross) stand behind him. One of Perugino’s best known panel pictures. Painted for the chapel of the Nasi family in the Chiesa di Castello (now Santa Maria Maddalena dei Pazzi) in Florence. The chapel was founded on 6 March 1489, and the altarpiece was probably painted a few years later. It was removed by Francesco di Lorenzo Nasi when the church and convent were taken over by the Carmelites in 1628, and entered the Capponi collection when his sister and heiress, Ortensia Nasi, married a Capponi. It was bought from the Capponi family in 1829 by King Ludwig I of Bavaria. There is a seventeenth-century copy by Felice Ficherelli in Santo Spirito, Florence, where the Nasi also had a chapel.
Virgin adoring the Child. Wood, 203 x 158.
On the left, St John the Evangelist; on the right, St Augustine (or Nicholas). This well-preserved picture probably dates from about 1500. It is said to have come from Venice, and early in the nineteenth century it was in the collection of a Mr Henry of London and Paris. It was bought by Von Dillis in Paris in 1815 for 18,000 francs, and acquired by the Munich Gallery in 1836.
Nancy. Musée des Beaux-Arts.
Madonna and Child with St John and Two Angels. Wood, 162 x 118.
The kneeling Virgin has her right hand on the shoulder of the infant St John the Baptist, who kneels in prayer before the Christ Child, seated on a blanket on the grass. The composition of the group appears to derive from Leonardo's Virgin of the Rocks (or perhaps some other pyramidal composition by Leonardo). Two angels kneel in prayer at the sides. There are the remains of a signature beneath the figure of St John. The picture may date from the early 1500s. It has been cut down at the bottom and on both sides. Before the French Revolution it was in the collection of Jean Paul Timoléon de Cossé, Duc de Brissac, a general under Louis XV and a Marshal of France. It was seized during the Terror and sent to Nancy in 1803.
Nantes. Musée des Beaux-Arts.
The Prophet David (formerly Jeremiah) and the Prophet Isaiah. Wood, 127 in dia.
These two large tondi were commissioned in 1496 for the San Pietro Altarpiece. They flanked the centre panel of Christ’s Ascension (Lyon) – the Jeremiah on the left and the Isaiah on the right.
Saints Sebastian and Anthony of Padua. Wood, 74 x 50.
A fragment from an altarpiece. Attributed to Perugino as an early work, close in style to the Adoration of the Magi in Perugia. Acquired by François Cacault, a minister of Napoleon, in Rome at the end of the eighteenth century; at Nantes since 1810.
Madonna and Child. Wood, 90 x 66.
In the background, small figures of the Magi and their entourage. Originally in the church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome. It came to Naples in 1799 as a work of Raphael and was reattributed to Perugino in the early nineteenth century. Modern commentators have sometimes called it a studio work. Restored in 2014.
Assumption. Wood, 500 x 330.
Commissioned, probably around 1508, for the high altar of the cathedral. (Vasari mistakenly says it was painted for the Bishop’s Palace.) The donor, Cardinal Oliviero Caraffa, who built his burial chapel in the cathedral between 1497 and 1508, is represented kneeling to the left, recommended to the Virgin by St Januarius. Some of the apostles are repeated from the Ascension at Lyon, and much of the work was doubtless by Perugino’s workshop. The picture was moved from the high altar in 1774. Previously displayed in the crypt (Cappella Caraffa), it now hangs over an altar in the right transept.
New York. Metropolitan Museum.
Resurrection. Wood, 27 x 46.
The composition repeats elements of the Vatican Resurrection and a predella panel at Rouen from the San Pietro Altarpiece. Once in the London collection of Alexander Barker with four other predella panels, which are now in the Chicago Art Institute. Acquired by the Metropolitan Museum in 1911. It is better preserved than the Chicago panels, which have been transferred to canvas.
Saint John the Baptist; Saint Lucy. Wood, 160 x 67.
Two side panels from the large double-sided altarpiece painted for Santissima Annunziata and completed by 1507. They seem to have flanked the Deposition (now in the Accademia at Florence). After nearly a century in the collection of the Dukes of Saxe-Meiningen, they were purchased in 1961 by Mr and Mrs Jack Linsky, who donated them to the museum in 1981.
New York. Pierpont Morgan Library.
Madonna and Two Saints adoring the Child. Wood, 87 x 72.
Once known as the Three Maries, the figure kneeling on the left may be St John the Evangelist and that on the right Mary Magdalene (or St Sophronia). Usually dated around 1500. Bought by Pierpont Morgan in 1911 from Sir George Sitwell, the English antiquarian, author and Conservative politician.
Panicale (30 km from Perugia). San Sebastiano.
Martyrdom of St Sebastian. Fresco.
The saint stands on a pedestal, in a Renaissance courtyard, surrounded by four archers. Signed on the pedestal and dated 1505 on the column. Perugino was only paid in September 1507, after a lawsuit to recover the debt. The fresco has recently been restored.
Three Predella Panels. 30 x 28/30.
One panel shows the Dead Christ with symbols of the Passion. The other two panels show Miracles of St Jerome: in one (damaged by the loss of a horizontal strip of paint towards the top) he raises to life Cardinal Andrea in the presence of the Pope and in the other he saves two young men who had been left to hang for eight days. From the huge Campana collection acquired by Napoleon III in 1861. In the 1862 catalogue, the three panels were ascribed to Pisanello. Later given to Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, they were attributed to Perugino by Adolfo Venturi in 1913 and are now acknowledged as among his earliest known works (early 1470s?).
Holy Family. Wood, 81 x 63.
The Virgin and Child, half-length, between Joseph and Catherine of Alexandria. The composition and dark background recall Giovanni Bellini, and the picture probably dates from after Perugino’s visits to Venice in 1494-95. There is a similar picture, in which a female saint (Rose or Agnes?) replaces Joseph, at Vienna. Acquired in 1821 from the collection of Louis XVIII.
Battle of Love and Chastity. Canvas, 160 x 191.
In a crowded and confused composition, Love is represented by Venus (with a long flaming torch) and Chastity by Pallas Athena (dressed in helmet and breastplate and about to strike a blind-folded cupid with her spear) and Diana (shooting an arrow at Venus, who is trying to set her dress on fire). Commissioned by Isabella d’Este who, in a correspondence consisting of over seventy letters, stipulated the size of the picture and the material used (tempera on canvas), and gave extremely detailed instructions as to its subject. Perugino was forbidden to ‘add anything of his own invention’. Negotiations for the picture started in 1497. A detailed programme for the allegory was composed by the humanist Paride de Ceresara and incorporated into a contract of 19 January 1503. The fee was 100 ducats. The picture was finally delivered in June 1505. Isabella found it ‘well composed and coloured, but had it been finished with greater diligence … it would have been to your greater honour and your greater satisfaction’. The companion pictures in Isabella’s first Studiolo were the Parnassus and Triumph of Wisdom over the Vices, both by Mantegna, and an Allegory and Comus, by Lorenzo Costa. They were removed to Richelieu’s castle after the sack of Mantua in 1630, and are all now in the Louvre.
Apollo and Marsyas (or Daphnis). Wood, 39 x 29.
One of only two known mythological paintings by Perugino (the other is the Battle of Love and Chastity). The subject has usually been interpreted as the arrogant Apollo looking down on Marsyas during their musical contest. The youth sitting playing his pipes has alternatively been identified as Daphnis, and it has been suggested that the picture was painted for Lorenzo de’ Medici (who was compared to Daphnis by Naldo Naldi). (However, in a preparatory drawing at Venice the seated youth appears to have pointed ears, identifying him as a faun or satyr – Marsyas rather than Daphnis.) This poetic cabinet picture was sold, as a Raphael, by Morris Moore for 200,000 francs to the Louvre in 1883 on condition that it was exhibited in the Salon Carré under the title of the ‘Raphael de Morris Moore’. Giovanni Morelli, in 1881, was the first to attribute it to Perugino. It probably dates from about 1490.
Saint Sebastian. Wood, 170 x 117.
The saint’s pose is identical to that in the San Domenico Altarpiece of 1493 in the Uffizi. Usually dated around 1493-97. First recorded in the seventeenth century in the Barberini collection. Bought in 1896 from the Palazzo Sciarra in Rome for 150,000 francs. There is an autograph replica in the São Paolo Museum, Brasil.
Young Saint with a Sword. Wood, 102 in dia.
The sword is a common attribute, and the traditional identification of the young saint as Paul may be incorrect. The panel, which was originally square or rectangular, belonged to the front upper tier of the Sant’Agostino Altarpiece.
Virgin and Child with Two Female Saints and Two Angels. Wood, 148 in dia.
One saint is probably Catherine of Alexandria; the other is usually identified as Rose of Viterbo but could be Mary Magdalene. Once considered an early work of Perugino himself (indeed cited by Crowe and Cavalcaselle as the best example of his early style), but now generally ascribed to an assistant or collaborator (Andrea d’Assisi?). Once in the Palazzo Corsini at Rome, and later owned by William II of Orange. Bought by the Louvre for 53,300 francs in 1850.
Paris. Musée Jacquemart-André.
Virgin with the Standing Child Blessing. Wood, 61 x 41.
The composition is of a type associated with Verrocchio (compare, for instance, the Madonna and Standing Child at Berlin). Acquired by Nélie Jacquemart at an auction in Rome in 1884 as a work of Pollaiuolo. Now attributed (not unanimously) to Perugino as a very early work produced in Verrocchio's studio.
Pavia. Certosa. Second chapel, left.
The altarpiece was commissioned by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico il Moro, by 1496 and was left unfinished by Perugino. Only one of the six panels is original. This is the central one in the upper tier, which represents the Eternal Father (127 x 58). The originals of the three lower panels (replaced by poor copies on canvas) are in the National Gallery, London. The originals of the two upper side panels (representing the Angel Gabriel and Virgin Annunciate) were executed by Albertinelli in 1511 and are now in the Musée d’Art, Geneva. They have been replaced by panels by Ambrogio Bergognone taken from another altarpiece in the Certosa. The frame of red marble is not original but dates from the mid-seventeenth century.
Perugia. Galleria Nazionale.
Adoration of the Magi. Wood, 241 x 180.
Mentioned by Vasari as an early work of Perugino, and now generally accepted as such, following attributions to Fiorenzo di Lorenzo (Crowe and Cavalcaselle) and even Ghirlandaio in the nineteenth century. Some of the figures, including Joseph and the eldest Magus, have been ascribed to Signorelli. The man in a red hat on the extreme left, behind the youngest of the Magi, is probably a self-portrait of Perugino in his twenties. Painted, probably in the mid-1470s, for the church of Santa Maria dei Servi in Colle Landone. The church was demolished in 1542 when the Rocca Paolina was built, and the picture was transferred to the Servites’ new church of Santa Maria Nuova. It was sent to Rome by the French in 1812, but returned in 1817. Transferred to the gallery in 1863.
Pietà with SS. Jerome and Mary Magdalene. Canvas, 130 x 165.
From the Franciscan convent at Farneto (15 km north-east of Perugia on the road to Gubbio). It hung on the right side of the nave, near the entrance. Painted on canvas, it was possibly a processional banner (gonfalone). Formerly ascribed to Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, but now generally given to Perugino as a very early work (1470s). Transferred to the gallery in 1863.
Saint Jerome in the Desert. Detached fresco, 137 x 77.
This damaged fresco entered the gallery in 1964 with the bequest of the art historian Mason Perkins. Its original location is unknown, and it is first recorded only in 1907 in the possession of Monsignor Nazzareno Marzolini, a prelate of Perugia. Originally ascribed to Fiorenzo di Lorenzo or his school, the attribution to Perugino, as a very early work, was made by Berenson in 1936. The head of the saint is very similar to that of the St Jerome in the Pietà with SS. Jerome and Mary Magdalene.
Christ in the Tomb. Wood, 87 x 82.
Christ crowned with thorns, standing and extending his hands. The top (cimasa) of an altarpiece painted in 1495-96 for the chapel of the Decemviri (ten magistrates) in the Palazzo dei Priori (now part of the Galleria Nazionale). The main panel was looted by the French in 1797 and is now in the Vatican Gallery. The Dead Christ remained in the Sala dei Magistrato until 1863, when it was transferred to the gallery. The Christ in the Tomb and a copy of the main panel (painted in 1799 by Domenico Gambi) have been recently reassembled in their original frame and returned to the altarpiece's original location.
Madonna of the Confraternita della Consolazione. Wood, 183 x 130.
A gonfalone (processional banner), commissioned in April 1496 for a confraternity of flagellants (disciplinati) and finished by 14 April 1498 (when Perugino received the balance of money due). Six white-robed members of the confraternity kneel behind the Madonna, seated on a bench. The Confraternita della Consolazione met originally in the crypt of the Augustinian church of Santa Maria Novella, but in 1500 it built its own oratory on what is now Corso Garibaldi. The picture was moved to the Oratorio di San Pietro Matire in 1801, after the confraternity of the Consolazione merged with that of San Pietro Martire. Transferred to the gallery in 1863.
Madonna in Glory with Saints ('Pala Tezi'). Wood, 174 x 133.
St Bernardino of Siena and St Nicholas of Tolentino kneel beside the Madonna in the heavens; St Jerome, with his lion, and St Sebastian kneel on the ground. The city of Perugia is viewed in the distance. Painted in 1500 (the date is on the hem of the Virgin’s gown) for a Bernardino di ser Angelo, whose family chapel (later called the Cappella dei Tezi) was in Sant’Agostino at Perugia. The execution has sometimes been ascribed to an assistant (Eusebio da San Giorgio?), but a recent restoration has revealed its high quality. The predella, representing the Last Supper, was probably stolen during the French occupation of Perugia in 1797 and is now in Berlin. The main panel was transferred to the gallery in 1863.
‘Madonna della Guistizia’. Canvas, 263 x 176.
It was previously thought that this picture was commissioned as a gonfalone (processional banner) in 1501 by the Confraternity of Sant’Andrea della Guistizia, which was dedicated partly to the help of condemned prisoners. However, recently discovered documents suggest that it was painted in 1496 for another confraternity, dedicated to St Bernardino of Siena. St Bernardino and St Francis are shown kneeling in the foreground; above, the Madonna is seated in the heavens. The population of Perugia kneel in the middle distance, the hooded members of the confraternity at the back; in the far distance is a view of Perugia. The banner was originally kept in the Oratorio della Confraternita di San Bernardino, near Porta Eburnea. However, in 1537, when the Confraternity of Sant’Andrea merged with the Confraternity of San Bernardino, it was moved to the Oratorio dei SS. Andrea e Bernardino and converted into an altarpiece. Transferred to the gallery in 1879. Altered as early as 1509, when a gold and silver crown was added to the Virgin’s head, and badly restored after it entered the gallery.
Double-sided Altarpiece. Wood, 228 x 168.
On one side, Saints and Angels about a carved wooden crucifix (once attributed to Giovan Battista Bastone and more recently to Giovanni Tedesco); on the other side, a Coronation of the Virgin. Ordered on 10 September 1502 (for delivery by Easter 1503) by the convent of San Francesco al Monte at Perugia for its high altar. The price was 120 florins. Perugino appears to have delegated the execution largely to assistants. Raphael seems to have drawn on the arrangement and poses of the saints in the Crucifixion for his own, almost contemporary Mond Crucifixion of 1503 (National Gallery, London). Sent to Rome in 1812 during the Napoleonic occupation, but returned in 1817. Transferred to the gallery in 1863. Restored in 1994. The predella, which included scenes of St Bernardino of Siena and the Blessed Bernardino da Feltre, is lost.
Adoration of the Shepherds. Frescoed lunette, 246 x 356.
This damaged lunette (restored in 1994) was from the east door of San Francesco al Monte (or Monteripido) at Perugia. Perugino decorated two chapels in the church – probably shortly after 1499, when the building work was done. The frescoes were described as very damaged as early as 1674. The lunette was detached in 1856 and transferred to the gallery in 1873. This composition was often repeated by Perugino.
St John the Baptist with SS. Francis, Jerome, Sebastian and Anthony. Wood, 202 x 173.
Painted, probably around 1510, for the church of San Francesco al Prato at Perugia. The figures of St Jerome and St Francis are similar to those in the Schiavone Altarpiece, commissioned in 1507 for Santa Maria dei Servi and now in the National Gallery, London. Sent to Paris in 1797, but returned; transferred to the gallery in 1863. In comparison with some earlier works by Perugino in the gallery, its appearance is rather flat and colourless.
Beato Giacomo della Marcha. Canvas, 152 x 82.
St James of the Marches (1394-1476), a pupil of St Bernardino of Siena, was an itinerant Franciscan preacher. He holds a small reliquary inscribed Sanquine Criste – a reference to his controversial belief in the precious qualities of Christ’s blood. A late work (about 1512?), painted as a gonfalone for the Confraternità di San Gerolamo at Perugia. From the late eighteenth century in the church of San Francesco al Prato; transferred to the gallery in 1810.
Saint Jerome. Canvas, 131 x 108.
Possibly a gonfalone. First recorded in 1822 in the sacristy of Sant’Ercolano at Perugia. Late (about 1512-15).
Transfiguration. Wood, 290 x 185.
Ordered on 17 December 1517 by Andreana Signorelli for the Signorelli family chapel in the church of Santa Maria dei Servi in Colle Landone. Finished by 7 September 1518. The church was pulled down to make way for the Rocca Paolina, and the Servites moved to their new church of Santa Maria Nuova in 1542. Transferred to the gallery in 1863. Perugino seems to have reused for this picture his cartoons for the fresco of the same subject in the Cambio; the three figures on the ground have been reversed.
Baptism; Nativity; Annunciation. Wood, 16/17 x 37.
These three small panels are usually assumed to have belonged to the predella of the Transfiguration of 1517-18. An alternative theory (almost certainly wrong) is that they came from the Schiavone Altarpiece (Madonna with SS. Francis and Jerome), which was also painted for Santa Maria dei Servi and is now in the National Gallery, London.
Madonna with SS. Ercolano and Costanzo. Wood, 80 x 55.
A late work (about 1517-18), sometimes called the Madonna della Cucina as it was commissioned for the kitchen of the Palazzo dei Priori. Transferred to the gallery in about 1861.
Martyrdom of St Sebastian. Wood, 211 x 161.
From the Martinelli Chapel in the church of San Francesco al Prato at Perugia. The date 1518 is on the pedestal. Much damaged and probably partly by Perugino’s assistants.
Panels from the Sant’Agostino Altarpiece.
The enormous, free-standing, double-sided polyptych, consisting of perhaps thirty panels, stood between the nave and the choir of the church. The frame was fashioned by Mattia di Tommaso da Reggio in 1495 and enlarged by Giambattista Bastone in 1512 according to Perugino’s design. Perugino first received the commission for the paintings in 1502, and the contract was renewed in 1512, but the work was still not quite finished at his death in 1523. Much of the execution was undoubtedly by Perugino’s assistants (particularly Eusebio da San Giorgio but perhaps also Bartolomeo di Giovanni, Giannicola and Andrea d’Assisi). The structure was dismantled in the seventeenth century. Many of the panels were taken to France during the Napoleonic occupation. In the Perugia Gallery are the two centre panels (the Baptism of Christ from the front and the Adoration of the Shepherds from the back); a side panel from the back (SS. Jerome and Mary Magdalene); the lunette (God the Father) and two tondi of prophets (David and Daniel) from the front; the Angel Gabriel from the Annunciation on the back; and panels from both the front and back predelle. Other pieces are in San Pietro (Perugia), Birminghan (Alabama), Grenoble, Lyon, Toulouse and Paris. The panel, formerly at Strasbourg, of the Virgin Annunciate from the Annunciation on the back was destroyed by fire during the Franco-Prussian War. The surviving panels were reunited in 2004 for the exhibition Perugino: Il Divin Pittore in Perugia.
Miracles of San Bernardino. Wood, 80 x 56.
Perugino is often thought to have played some part in the execution and design of these eight panels. The scenes most often attributed to him are the Healing of the Ulcer of the Daughter of Giovanni Petrazio da Rietri (inscribed with the date 1473 over the arch) and the Healing of the Blind Man. The eight panels decorated the sides of a niche in the church of San Francesco al Prato, where they are ascribed to Pisanello in old guidebooks. They were transferred to the gallery in 1863 (and ascribed just as improbably to Mantegna). Later attributed to Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, the panels are now thought to have been the work of a number of different hands (including Bartolomeo Caporali and Pintoricchio’). Restored in 1991-93.
'Ranieri Annunciation'. Wood, 56 x 42.
The scene is set in an airy courtyard, with a typical Umbrian landscape viewed through the arches at the end. The poses of the Virgin and Angel are similar to those in the Fano Annunciation. The little panel probably dates from the late 1480s or 1490s. It belongs to a private collector, who placed it on loan with the gallery in 2012 for five years.
Perugia. Collegio del Cambio. Sala dell’Udienza.
The Sala dell'Udienza, the audience hall of the bankers' guild at Perugia, was built in 1452-7 but was left undecorated for forty years. The Collegio discussed the decoration on 26 January 1496 and named Perugino as its preferred artist. It drew up a contract (recently discovered) in May/June 1496. But, with Perugino spending most of 1497 in Florence and Fano, the work is unlikely to have started much before 1498. It may have been completed by 1500 (the date inscribed on the central pilaster on the right). Perugino's fee was 350 large gold ducats (paid partly in annual installments to June 1507). The elaborate programme, which combines allegorical and sacred subjects, seems to have been devised largely by Francesco Maturanzio, professor of rhetoric at Perugia, who composed the couplets featured on the tablets on the walls. It alludes to the functions of the Cambio, which served as a mercantile court and charity as well as a bank.
The two large lunettes (each about 290 x 400) on the left wall represent the Cardinal Virtues and Famous Men of Antiquity. The first shows allegorical figures of Prudence and Justice enthroned on clouds above imaginary portraits of Greeks and Romans celebrated for these virtues. The Roman politician and general Fabius Maximus, the Greek philosopher Socrates and the legendary KIng of Rome Nuna Pompilius represent prudence, while the Roman statesman Marcus Furius Camillus, the Greek sage Pittacus of Mytilene and the Roman Emperor Trajan represent justice. The other fresco shows figures of Fortitude and Temperance enthroned on clouds above six other Greek and Roman exemplars. The Roman orator Lucius Lininus Crassus, the Spartan king Leonidas and the Roman hero Horatius Cocles represent fortitude, while the Roman general Publius Cornelius Scipio, the Athenian statesman Pericles and the Roman statesman Cincinnatus represent temperance. Adolfo Venturi seems to have been the first to ascribe the figure of Fortitude to the seventeen-year-old Raphael. This attribution is repeated in guidebooks, though there is no hard evidence that Raphael worked in the Cambio. On the middle pilaster is Perugino's vigorous Self-Portrait (40 x 30) in a painted frame hanging by a string of coral beads from a nail. The Latin inscription on the tablet below reads: 'Pietro Perugino, famous painter, rediscovered with patient determination the art of painting when it was lost, and when no-one was giving it life, he was the first to create art that was beautiful'.
The single scene (229 x 370) on the right wall represents Old Testament Prophets and Sibyls. God the Father, framed by heads of seraphim and flanked by fluttering angels, appears in a mandorla to Isaiah, Moses, Daniel, David, Jeremiah and Solomon and to the Eritrean, Persian, Cumaean, Libyan, Tiburtine and Delphic Sibyls. The prophets and sibyls all hold long scrolls with fragments of prophecy. The fresco is thought to represent Hope, one of the three Theological Virtues. On the end wall are two scenes from the New Testament: the Transfiguration (226 x 229) and Nativity (264 x 225). These are thought to represent the other Theological Virtues of Faith and Charity. It had been intended that the Transfiguration and Nativity should be executed in oil on panel, but the Collegio for some reason rejected the panel supplied and the scenes were done in fresco instead.
In a painted niche to the right of the entrance is the standing figure of the Roman consul Marcus Porcius Cato, who presumably personifies Wisdom. The figure was originally over a pulpit used for addressing gatherings of the Cambio.
The vaulted ceiling is painted with grotesque decoration and representations in roundels of the seven planetary gods (Apollo in the centre, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, Mercury and Diana as the moon). The gods ride in triumphal cars drawn by eagles, doves, horses, the Hours and a dragon and on the wheels of their cars are the Signs of the Zodiac. The ceiling decoration is thought to have been designed by Perugino but executed entirely by assistants, possibly Giannicola di Paolo (who decorated the Cappella di San Giovanni Battista in the Collegio) and/or Andrea d'Assisi (called L'Ingegno, who painted some 'very beautiful figures' in the Sala dell'Udienza according to Vasari). Perugino was probably also assisted in the Cambio by a team of local painters (including Berto di Giovanni and Eusebio da San Giorgio) who rented a workshop nearby.
The exquisitely carved and inlaid furniture and wainscotting was made by Domenico del Tasso and Antonio di Mercatello and is contemporary with the painted decoration.
Perugia. San Pietro dei Cassinensi.
Pietà. Wood, 144 x 152.
Over the first altar of the north aisle. From the top of the back of the Sant’Agostino Altarpiece. It was given to San Pietro at the peace in 1815 in lieu of the Ascension in Lyon.
Five Saints. Wood.
In the sacristy. From the altarpiece painted for San Pietro in about 1496-98. The half-length figures (33 x 38) of Costanzo and Ercolano, the patron saints of Perugia, are from the predella. The other three saints (32 x 28) – Scolastica, Maurus and Peter in Chains – are from the bases of the columns that formed the sides of the altarpiece. The St Scolastica is a copy – the original was stolen in 1916 and never recovered. Three other small panels of saints from the altarpiece are in the Vatican Gallery, the centre panel and lunette are in Lyon, two tondi of prophets are in Nantes, and the predella is in Rouen.
Perugia. San Severo.
Six Saints. 470 x 390 (whole fresco).
The fresco was saved when the old church of San Severo was demolished in 1748. It was painted on the wall of a chapel, around a niche containing a polychrome terracotta statue of the Virgin and Child. According to the (restored) inscription, the upper part – representing the Holy Trinity with Saints – was painted by Raphael in 1505. Beneath, in 1521, Perugino added six further saints: Scholastica, Jerome, John the Evangelist, Gregory the Great, Boniface, and Martha.
Perugia. Convent of Sant’Agnese (Cappella della Consolazione).
Madonna and Saints. Fresco, 230 x 350.
The Virgin stands with her arms uplifted; angels hover overhead; two diminutive nuns kneel praying; and Saints Anthony Abbot and Anthony of Padua stand in niches at the sides. The nuns of Sant’Agnese were a strictly closed order, and the fresco is mentioned for the first time only in 1822. A recent restoration has revealed the original inscription, which gives the date 1522 and the names of two donors: Eufrasia degli Arcipreti and Teodora di Pier Matteo (who are presumably the two kneeling nuns). Other frescoes (the Eternal Father with SS. Sebastian and Roch and the Crucifixion) have been attributed to Eusebio da San Giorgio.
Pittsburgh. Carnegie Institute.
St Augustine with members of a Confraternity. Wood, 94 x 64.
Probably one side of a processional banner painted for the confraternity of Sant’Agostino at Fabriano. The other side represented the Virgin with Legends of Saints. It was probably painted in about 1500. Once in the possession of Lucian Bonaparte, it was sold in London in 1815 and was later in the collections of William I of Holland and of the Duke of Weimar. Acquired in 1961 by A. M. Scaife of Pittsburgh, who donated it to the Carnegie Institute.
Polesden Lacey (Surrey).
Miracle of the Foundation of Santa Maria Maggiore. Wood, 19 x 40.
The panel depicts the legend of how, during the pontificate of Liberius in the fourth century, a vision led to the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore being founded on the site of a miraculous snowfall in August. Clearly from the same predella as the Birth of the Virgin at Liverpool (which is the same size and has the same red and white painted oval framing around the scene). Both panels were in the collection of Lord Cawdor in the late eighteenth century and were sold at Christie’s in 1804. The Polesden Lacey picture was later at Elmley Castle, Worcester, and was bought by Robert Langton Douglas for £250 in 1917. Formerly ascribed to Filippino Lippi, and given to the youthful Perugino by Zeri (1965). The subject suggests that the predella came from an altarpiece painted for a church or altar dedicated to the Madonna of the Snow.
Raleigh. North Carolina Museum of Art.
Virgin; St John the Evangelist. 21 in dia.
These two small roundels may have belonged to the same predella as a Dead Christ in the museum at Montefortino and a St Peter (?) in the Olana State Historical Site (Hudson, New York). Variously attributed to Perugino (as very late works), his studio and his school. Formerly in the Cook collection at Richmond, Surrey; given to the North Carolina Museum by the Kress Foundation in 1960.
Rome. Galleria Nazionale.
St Filippo Benizzi. Wood, 79 x 62.
The saint was formerly misidentified as Nicholas of Tolentino. Filippo Benizzi (Philip Benizi) is the principal saint of the Servites, a monastic order founded in Florence in the thirteenth century. The Latin inscription on the book is from Psalm 116 ('I am your servant and son of your handmaid'). The panel, originally full-length, is from the huge double-sided high altarpiece painted in 1503-7 for the Servite church of the Annunziata in Florence. It was originally situated on one of the two ends. But in 1546, when the altarpiece was converted into a ciborium, it was cut down and installed above a panel of the Blessed Francis of Siena (now in Altenburg). Formerly in the Torlonia collection; bequeathed in 1892.
Rome. Vatican. Sistine Chapel.
Perugino probably started work on the cycle of seventeen wall frescoes sometime in 1480 – before the arrival (by October 1481) of the other major contributors (Botticelli, Cosimo Rosselli and Domenico Ghirlandaio). He painted the most important scenes, and is sometimes credited with supervising the whole project (though there is no documentary evidence for this). Perugino’s work was probably completed by 5 October 1482, when he is recorded in Florence. Sixtus IV inaugurated the chapel on the Feast of the Assumption, 15 August 1483. Perugino’s three frescoes over the high altar – an Assumption (with a kneeling portrait of Sixtus IV), a Nativity and a Finding of Moses – were destroyed in 1535-41 when Michelangelo painted his Last Judgement. The composition of the Assumption is recorded by a drawing, attributed either to Perugino's workshop or to a follower of Pintoricchio, in the Albertina at Vienna.
Christ giving the Keys to Peter. Fresco, 335 x 550.
The only one of the surviving series largely by Perugino. The scene is set in a great piazza; in the centre is a domed and porticoed Renaissance-style Temple of Solomon, and on either side are triumphal arches resembling the Arch of Constantine. In the background are shown the payment of the tribute and the attempted stoning of Christ. The portraits are (unreliably) said to include Giovannino de’Dolci (architect of the Sistine Chapel, second from the right), Baccio Pontelli (third), Pintoricchio (fourth), Perugino himself (fifth), and Alfonso di Calabria (in profile, far left). Up to eight of the figures have been ascribed to Luca Signorelli. According to Vasari, Bartolomeo della Gatta also assisted on the fresco.
Baptism of Christ. Fresco, 335 x 540.
In the background: the Sermon of John the Baptist on the hill to the left and the Sermon of Christ on a mound to the right. Many of the bystanders to the left and right of the main scene are probably portraits of relatives and favourites of Sixtus IV, who was notorious for his nepotism. Vasari says that Pintoricchio assisted Perugino on this fresco. Although Perugino’s signature appears on the border above, Morelli (1892-93) ascribed the fresco entirely to Pintoricchio. Most modern critics see the hand of both artists, and also that of other assistants such as Andrea d’Assisi..
Journey of Moses to Egypt. Fresco, 335 x 540.
Several incidents are shown: in the distance, Moses taking leave of his father-in-law Jethro before returning to Egypt; in the foreground, the angel appearing to Moses and ordering him to circumcise Gershom, his son; and, on the right, the circumcision performed by Moses’ wife Zipporah. As in the case of the Baptism, much of the execution was probably by assistants, including Pintoricchio.
Rome. Vatican. Stanza dell’Incendio.
In the quadrants are four scenes (Christ flanked by Justice and Grace; God the Father with Angels; Christ Tempted; and Christ and Apostles with God the Father) in circular medallions, on a gold mosaic ground with tendrils of acanthus. Painted (probably mainly by Perugino’s assistants) in 1508. The ceiling was spared when the room was frescoed by Raphael and his assistants in 1514-17.
Rome. Vatican Pinacoteca.
Madonna and Child with Saints. Wood, 193 x 165.
The main panel of an altarpiece painted for the Decemviri (the ten magistrates of the city of Perugia) for their private chapel in the Palazzo dei Priori. The commission was originally given to Perugino in November 1483, but quickly withdrawn. It was reinstated in March 1495, and the altarpiece was finished the following year. Perugino was paid 100 florins. The Madonna is enthroned between the patron saints of the city: Lawrence, Louis of Toulouse, Herculanus and Constantius. In 1553 the altarpiece was moved to a new chapel on the first floor of the Palazzo dei Priori. It was dismembered in 1797 and the main panel was taken to Paris. The frame and a Pietà forming the pinnacle remained behind and are now in the gallery at Perugia. When the main panel was returned to Italy in 1816, it was placed by Pius VII in the new Vatican Pinacoteca rather than returned to Perugia.
The Resurrection. Wood, 233 x 156.
Commissioned on 2 March 1499 for the chapel of Bernardino di Giovanni da Corneto in the church of San Francesco al Prato at Perugia. It was to be finished within two months according to the contract. There is an unreliable tradition that one of the soldiers is a portrait of Raphael, who is also said to have worked on the picture. It is another of the pictures that were taken to France in 1797 and entered the Papal collections on their return to Italy. Since the pontificate of Paul VI, it has been hung in the papal library, which is on the second floor of the Apostolic Palace and inaccessible to the public. (The Resurrection can often be seen in television broadcasts, hanging behind the Pope when he receives official guests.) Thoroughly restored in 2000-4.
Heads of Saints Placidus, Flavia and Benedict. Wood, 31 x 26.
St Flavia, crowned and with her hands clasped, and St Placidus, bearing a palm, were brother and sister and early disciples of St Benedict, who holds holy water and a book. The three small panels are from the bases of the columns that formed the sides of the altarpiece painted in about 1496-98 for the Benedictine church of San Pietro in Perugia. Five other small panels of saints are still in the church; the main panel, the Ascension, is in Lyon.
Rome. Galleria Borghese.
Madonna. Wood, 45 x 37.
Of unknown provenance. Sometimes (eg by Scarpellini in his 1991 book on Perugino) ascribed to the artist’s workshop. There is another version (perhaps also by Perugino’s studio) in the Pushkin Museum, Moscow.
Rome. Villa Albani Torlonia.
Polyptych. Wood, 140 x 160.
The three main sections represent the Nativity between SS. Michael and John the Baptist (left) and SS. George and Jerome (right). The landscape and architecture are continuous across the three panels, but there are differences in the scale of the figures (the saints at the sides being smaller than the Joseph and Mary in the centre). The main panels are surmounted by three smaller panels of the Crucifixion between the Angel Gabriel and the Virgin Annunciate. Probably painted in Rome for Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere (nephew of Sixtus IV, Bishop of Ostia and later Julius II), who also employed Perugino to decorate his palazzo with frescoes. Signed and dated 1491 on the capitals of the pillars. It passed from the Albani to the Chigi family in 1852, and then to the Torlonia in 1866.
Rouen. Musée des Beaux-Arts.
Adoration of the Magi; Baptism; Resurrection. Wood, 31 x 59.
These three panels formed most of the predella of the altarpiece painted in about 1496-98 for San Pietro in Perugia. The altarpiece was taken from the church in 1798 and the three predella panels were sent to Rouen in 1803. Two smaller panels from the predella, representing St Costanzo and St Ercolano, are still in the church. The centre panel and the lunette are in Lyon. In the nineteenth century, the Rouen panels were attributed to the young Raphael by, among others, the painter Eugène Delacroix.
St Petersburg. Hermitage.
Bust of St Sebastian. Wood, 53 x 40.
Signed in gold letters on the shaft of the arrow protruding from the saint's neck. A half-length replica of the picture in the Louvre, which itself repeats the figure of the saint in the San Domenico Altarpiece of 1493 (Uffizi). Formerly in the Villa Wolkonski, Rome. Bought for 100,000 francs in 1911.
Ascension of Christ. Wood, 333 x 266.
Painted in Florence, according to Vasari, and ‘transported on the backs of porters at very great cost to the church of San Gilio’. Although Vasari refers to the Sansepolcro picture first, it is considered a replica of the centre panel, now in Lyon, of the San Pietro Altarpiece of 1496-98. The execution has been ascribed to Perugino’s shop (Gerino da Pistoia?).
São Paolo. Museu de Arte.
Saint Sebastian. Canvas, 177 x 120.
A replica, by Perugino and his workshop, of the picture in the Louvre. Formerly in the collection of Earl Crawford at Wigan.
Senigallia. Santa Maria delle Grazie.
Madonna and Saints. Wood, 280 x 227.
The Virgin and Child are enthroned between Saints John the Baptist, Louis of Toulouse and Francis (left) and Peter, Paul and James the Great (right). The undocumented picture is nearly identical to the altarpiece at Fano (commissioned in 1488 and dated 1497). The only change of importance is the replacement of Mary Magdalene by St James. The newly restored altarpiece was the focus of an exhibition held in June-November 2014 at Senigallia (Palazzo del Duca).
Siena. Sant’Agostino (second altar, south side).
Crucifixion. Wood, 400 x 290.
To the left of the cross: the Virgin, St Augustine, St Monica, St Catherine; to the right, SS. Mary Magdalene, Jerome, John the Baptist and John the Evangelist. The altarpiece still hangs over the altar for which it was painted. It was commissioned by Mariano Chigi, father of the famous banker Agostino Chigi. In a letter of 7 November 1500, Agostino wrote from Rome to his father as follows: ' ... if the Perugian with whom you have spoken is master Pietro Perugino, I can say of your wishing to have the [altarpiece] done by him, that he is the best painter in Italy'. Almost two years later, on 4 August 1502, Agostino's cousin Cristoforo di Benedetto Chigi signed a contract for the altarpiece on behalf of Mariano Chigi. The work seems to have been finished by June 1506. Perugino was paid 200 gold ducats. The altarpiece had a predella and was surmounted by a terracotta statue of the Risen Christ.
Spello. Santa Maria Maggiore.
Pietà. Fresco, 163 x 155.
St John the Evangelist and Mary Magdalene kneel at the sides. A very late work, signed and dated 1521 on the two plaques hanging from the canopy over the Virgin's throne. An inscription on the base of the throne gives the name of the donor: one Michelangelo Andine.
Virgin and Child. Fresco, 163 x 145.
The companion fresco to the Pietà, on the opposite pilaster near the high altar. On the left of the enthroned Virgin stands St Catherine of Alexandria (holding a palm and book and standing on her broken wheel) and on her right St Blaise (with bishop's mitre and crosier and holding his wool comb). Dated 25 April 1521 on the base of the throne. The donor is named as Giovanni Bernadelli.
The contract, drawn up on 13 March 1521 between Perugino and the church canons, stipulated that the frescoes should be completed in just two months for the very modest fee of 25 gold ducats, plus hospitality ('room, bed, clothes, bread, wine, oil and wood'). The frescoes (now detached) are still in their original positions, though the altars for which they were painted were destroyed in 1644.
Stockholm. National Museum.
Saint Sebastian. Wood, 174 x 88.
The saint is shown full length in a landscape, his hands tied above him to the branches of a tree. Said to have been in a Yorkshire collection since the eighteenth century, the picture was first ‘published’ by Lionello Venturi in 1923 when it was in the Sulley collection in London. Acquired by the Stockholm Museum in 1929. Views on dating range from 1485 to 1500.
Toulouse. Musée des Augustins.
Saints John the Evangelist and Augustine. Wood, 173 x 91.
A side panel from the dismembered Sant’Agostino Altarpiece (most of which is in the gallery at Perugia). It flanked the Baptism on the front.
Trevi. Santa Maria delle Lacrime.
Adoration of the Magi. Fresco, 388 x 300.
In the arch above, an Annunciation in two roundels; St Paul and St Peter in painted niches at the sides. A very late work, painted in 1521 and signed on the base of the Virgin’s throne.
Vienna. Kunsthistorisches Museum.
Madonna and Four Saints. Wood, 186 x 172.
The Virgin and Child are enthroned between Saints Peter and John the Evangelist (or Matthew?) (left) and Paul and John the Baptist (right). On the plinth of the throne is an inscription giving the name of the priest who commissioned the work (Giovanni di Cristoforo da Terreno) and the date (1493). The original location of the picture (evidently an altarpiece) is unknown. First recorded in 1646 in the collection of Giovan Carlo de' Medici, son of Grand Duke Cosimo II, who donated his pictures to the Pitti Gallery. It came to VIenna in 1796 in an exchange of works of art. The Madonna seems to have been derived from the same cartoon as the Madonnas in the San Domenico Altarpiece, also of 1493, in the Uffizi, and the Cremona Altarpiece of 1494.
Madonna and Child with Two Female Saints. Wood, 85 x 62.
The two saints are usually identified as Catherine of Alexandria and Rose of Viterbo or Agnes. One of a group of closely related small-scale devotional pictures, which includes the Madonna without attendant saints at Frankfurt (which seems to have used the same cartoon in reverse), the Madonna with SS. Catherine and Joseph in the Louvre, and the late Madonna della Cucina at Perugia. There is also a replica, of lower quality, at Florence (Pitti). Recorded at Vienna since the early seventeenth century.
Baptism of Christ. Wood, 30 x 23.
The figures of Christ and the Baptist closely resemble those in the predella panel at Rouen (from the San Pietro Altarpiece of 1496-98). Dismissed as a modern copy by Crowe and Cavalcaselle; accepted as genuine by more recent experts, though with little agreement on dating. Recorded in the collection of Archduke Sigismond at Innsbrück and, in 1723, in the château at Ambras.
Saint Jerome in the Wilderness. Wood, 30 x 23.
A smaller version of the picture at Caen. The attribution has sometimes been questioned. Recorded in 1663 in the château at Innsbrück.
Washington. National Gallery of Art.
Triptych: Crucifixion and Saints. Wood (transferred to canvas in 1886).
Originally a small altarpiece with folding wings. The rectangular centre panel (102 x 57): Christ on the cross between Mary and John the Evangelist; the arched side panels (95 x 30): St Jerome and St Mary Magdalene. A comparatively early work, probably painted in the early or mid-1480s, shortly after the Sistine Chapel frescoes. It was presented to the church of San Domenico at San Gimignano by Cardinal Bartolomeo Bartoli (d. 1497), Bishop of Cagli, confessor to Sixtus IV and a prominent Dominican theologian. Attributed to Raphael in Coppi’s 1685 guidebook to San Gimignano. Taken from the church by French soldiers in 1797; restored by the painter Fabre; and sold (as a Raphael) to Prince Alexander Galitzyn, the Russian ambassador to Rome, in 1800 for 15,000 lire. Though attributed to Perugino in the Galitzyn collection, the Raphael attribution was revived after the picture was acquired by the Hermitage in 1886 (the curator claiming to have discovered the artist’s initials on the border of St John’s tunic). One of twenty-one old master paintings bought by Andrew Mellon in 1929-31 from the Hermitage at St Petersburg for almost seven million dollars. In excellent condition for a transferred painting.
Madonna and Child. Wood, 70 x 51.
This panel is close in style to the Virgin Adoring in London from the Certosa di Pavia., and it probably dates from around 1500. It was formerly in aristocratic collections in Madrid (Marchesi di Villafranca, Marqués de la Romana and Marqués de Villamayor). It was sold to Duveen and acquired by Samuel H. Kress in 1936. Rather worn (especially the Child) and retouched.
Portrait of Lorenzo di Credi (?). Canvas (transferred), 44 x 31.
An inscription on the back of the original panel (lost when the picture was transferred to canvas in 1933) read: ‘Lorenzo di Credi, most excellent painter, 1488, age 32 years, 8 months’. The portrait came to light only in 1901, when it was loaned by William Beattie of Glasgow to an exhibition in London. Sold in 1911 to P. A. B. Widener. Previously regarded as a self-portrait by Credi, the suggestion that it might be by Perugino seems to have been suggested first in 1932 (by Richard Offner). A resemblance has been noted to one of the portrait heads in the Sistine Chapel Giving of the Keys.
Saint Jerome in the Wilderness. Wood, 60 x 42.
The figure of the penitent saint is very similar to that of the Saint Jerome by Perugino at Hampton Court. Previously considered an early work of Perugino himself (allegedly showing the influence of Pintoricchio), it is now generally given to his studio or a follower (Andrea d’Assisi?). From the Sebright collection at Beechwood Hall, Hertfordshire; acquired by Kress (through Contini-Bonacossi) in 1937.
Williamstown (Mass.). Clark Art Institute.
Pietà. Wood (transferred to fabric), 93 x 72.
The dead Christ is supported on the edge of the tomb by the turbaned Nicodemos; Joseph of Arimathea on the right. Signed on the front of the sarcophagus. This richly coloured picture probably dates from the middle or late 1490s. It is first recorded in 1838 in the collection of Conte Bernardino degli Algarotti at Venice; and was later in the collections of Lord Taunton at Stoke Park, London, and Mrs Edward Stanley at Quantock Lodge, Bridgewater, Somerset. It entered the Clark collection in 1914.