VeronesePaolo Caliari, known as Veronese from his native city of Verona, was the fifth child of Gabriele di Piero, a stonecutter. Caliari was the name of a noble Veronese family, which he adopted after he became a successful painter. There is documentary evidence to support a range of dates of birth between 1527 and 1532, but 1528 is the most probable year. He is probably the Paulus, aged fourteen, recorded in 1541 as garzone in the workshop of the painter Antonio Badile. Vasari says that Giovanni Caroto was his master; but Borghini and Ridolfi confirm that he was Badile’s pupil, whose daughter he married in 1566. Titian was an obvious influence, but artists as diverse as Michelangelo, Giulio Romano and Parmigianino also appear to have contributed to his formation.
Veronese’s earliest surviving paintings date from the late 1540s. He seems to have first made his name as a frescante, decorating the façades of houses and interiors of villas. Early in his career, he collaborated with Giovanni Battista Zelotti (1526-78), a fellow pupil of Badile. By 1555 (and perhaps as early as 1553) he had moved to Venice. In November of that year he completed his first works for the church of San Sebastiano, the decoration of which occupied him off and on for the next fifteen years. He rarely left the Veneto, although (according to Ridolfi) he visited Rome in 1560 with Girolamo Grimani, Procurator of St Mark’s. On a famous occasion in 1573 he was called before a tribunal of the Inquisition to account for improprieties (‘buffoons, drunkards, German soldiers, dwarfs and similar vulgarities’) in a huge religious Feast now in the Accademia. Although he never achieved the international status of Titian, he was patronised late in his career by the Emperor Rudolph II and Philip of Spain. Such enthusiasm developed in Spain for his work that in 1585 he was offered a staggering 2,000 ducats to move to Madrid – an offer he eventually declined.
He produced an enormous range of work: altarpieces, huge biblical feast scenes for the refectories of the greater monasteries, mythological subjects and allegories, small devotional pictures and cassone panels, frescoes for façades (now totally lost) and for interiors of villas, ceiling paintings and portraits. He was a supreme colourist and decorator. His large canvases are full of light and colour, ceremony and splendour, with magnificent architectural settings inspired by Sansovino or Palladio and with people sumptuously dressed at the height of fashion or in fancy costume. The gaiety and relaxed opulence of his famous feast scenes contrast with the tense drama and humble surroundings of Tintoretto’s Last Suppers. Only in some late works is there much emotion or religious feeling. Unlike Titian or Tintoretto, he rarely painted official portraits. His full- and three-quarter length representations of noblemen, rich merchants and fine ladies tend to be decorative and opulent like his other works, and are generally more interested in conveying aristocratic poise and assurance than in portraying the personality and mood of the sitter.
To fulfil so many major commissions, Veronese relied on a team of skilled assistants – often members of his family. Relatively few of his paintings are documented or dated. Since he often worked concurrently in rather different styles, stylistic criticism has struggled to construct an agreed chronology, and some pictures are dated twenty years apart by different critics.
Veronese died on 19 April 1588 in his house at San Samuele of pneumonia contracted on a trip to Treviso, and was buried in his parish church of San Sebastiano. His workshop was carried on after his death by his younger brother Benedetto (1538-98) and his sons Carletto (1570-96) and Gabriele (1568-1631), who signed a number of paintings (including two scenes from the Life of Pope Alexander III in the Sala del Maggior Consiglio of the Doge’s Palace and a Baptism now in the Cathedral of St John the Divine, New York) as being by the Haeredes Pauli (‘heirs of Paolo’). Veronese’s works, particularly his allegorical paintings, were to be of great importance for later artists throughout Europe. They were studied by Rubens and by Baroque ceiling decorators of the seventeenth century; they played a crucial role in the eighteenth-century revival of Venetian painting under Sebastiano Ricci and Giambattista Tiepolo; they influenced eighteenth-century French painters such as Le Moyne and Boucher; and in the nineteenth century their vibrant brushwork and radiant colour fascinated Delacroix.
Portrait of Daniele Barbaro. Canvas, 118 x 104.
Daniele Barbaro (1513-70), the remarkable Venetian humanist, polymath, musical theorist and patron of the arts, built the Villa Barbaro at Maser, which was designed by Palladio and decorated in fresco by Veronese. He wears the robes of the Patriarch of Aquileia. He holds his translation of Vitruvius’s De Architectura, which he had printed, with illustrations by Palladio, by Francesco Marcolini in 1556. Another copy of the book, open at a page dealing with clocks, rests against the base of the column. The portrait was first recorded in 1726 in the collection of Samuele Hensler of Basle. By 1929 it was in the hands of the connoisseur Otto Lanz in Amsterdam, who wrote about it in an article in the Burlington Magazine, and it was acquired by the Rijksmuseum in 1952. In the early 2000s, when the museum was undergoing a ten-year renovation, the portrait was on loan to the National Gallery in London.
Holy Family. Canvas, 61 x 63.
Damaged, but usually accepted as an authentic early work, painted in the late 1540s or early 1550s. Formerly in the Duke of Westminster’s collection, London, and the Rath collection, Amsterdam.
Augsburg. Städtische Kuntsammlungen.
Venus and Adonis. Canvas, 123 x 174.
Influenced by Titian’s famous poesia of Venus and Adonis painted for Philip II in 1553-54. Like many of Veronese’s mythologies, it probably dates from the 1560s. There are other, later, versions by Veronese of the subject at Madrid, Seattle and Vienna. Acquired by the museum at Darmstadt in 1809.
Austin (Texas). Blanton Museum of Arts.
Head of St Michael. Canvas, 41 x 32.
Recently identified as a fragment of Veronese’s Petrobelli Altarpiece, painted in about 1563 for the church of San Francesco at Lendinara (see Xavier Salomon in the January 2009 Burlington Magazine). It belonged to the figure of St Michael standing in the centre. The rest of the figure was probably destroyed when the altarpiece was cut up in about 1788. Other fragments of the altarpiece are in Ottawa (the arched top half with the Dead Christ), Edinburgh (the left-hand portion with St Anthony Abbot and Donor) and Dulwich, London (the right-hand portion with St Jerome and Donor). The Head of St Michael was acquired by the art historian Wilhelm Suida by 1934 from an unknown source. The Suida-Manning collection of almost 250 paintings was acquired en bloc by the Blanton Museum in 1998. The four surviving fragments of the Petrobelli Altarpiece were reunited in 2009-10 for exhibitions at the Dulwich, Ottawa and Austin museums.
Annunciation. Canvas, 105 x 83.
This attractive picture is one of a number of small altarpieces of this subject by Veronese or his workshop. There are others, all different in composition, at Washington, Cleveland (Ohio) and Madrid (Thyssen-Bornemisza collection). Probably late (1580s). An attribution to Veronese's workshop is supported by technical analysis (infrared reflectography) revealing no difference between the underdrawing and the final execution. From the Suida-Manning collection.
Heads of Cherubs. Canvas, 36 x 39.
A fragment, attributed by the museum to ‘Veronese and workshop’. Also from the Suida-Manning collection.
Baltimore. Walters Art Gallery.
Livia da Porto Thiene with Her Daughter. Canvas, 208 x 121.
This majestic full-length portrait was painted as a pendant to the portrait in Florence (Uffizi, ex-Contini Bonacossi collection) of Livia’s husband Conte Iseppo da Porto and their eldest son Leonida. (The Baltimore picture is 15 cm narrower but has been cut down.) Conte Giuseppe and Livia were married in 1542, and the portraits probably date from 1552. The little girl, looking out from behind her mother’s fur-lined silk gown, is often called Porzia but is probably the eldest daughter Deidamia (born in 1545). Livia seems to be pregnant, and the marten with a gilt head hanging over her right arm and attached to her girdle with a gold chain may be a charm to protect her in childbirth. Acquired by Henry Walters in the early 1900s from the collection of Paolo Paolini, Rome. Somewhat abraded and retouched. The strip of floor (some 15 cm. wide) at the bottom is a later addition. The portraits of Livia and her husband Iseppo were reunited in exhibitions held in London at the V & A in 2006-7 and at the National Gallery in 2013-14.
Madonna in Glory with SS. Catherine and Ursula and Donor. Canvas, 272 x 158.
The Virgin and Child appear in the heavens against a white cloth of honour held up by winged cherubs. St Catherine of Alexandria leans on her spiked wheel, St Ursula raises her red cross banner, and an unknown donor kneels in the bottom right corner. From Bari Cathedral; transferred to the museum in 1928. Usually – though not unanimously – accepted as an autograph early work. Stylistic affinities have been seen with the Giustiniani Altarpiece of around 1551 in San Francesco della Vigna at Venice. Doubts about the attribution may reflect the picture’s poor condition. Restored in 2013.
Dead Christ with Angels (no. 295). Canvas, 110 x 94.
The composition is related to that of the Ottawa Dead Christ with Angels – a fragment of an altarpiece thought to have been painted around 1563. The Berlin picture has sometimes been dated about 1573 on the evidence of a sheet of drawings in Stuttgart (which includes sketches both for a Pietà and for the altarpiece of the Madonna of the Rosary painted in 1573 for the church of San Pietro Martire on Murano). It has sometimes been considered a workshop product (eg. by Pignatti (1976), who thinks it was designed by Veronese but executed by Carletto Caliari in the late 1580s). Recorded, with an attribution to Veronese, in the 1621 post-mortem inventory of Cardinal Benedetto Giustiniani’s famous collection, housed in his palazzo on Piazza San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome. The Giustiniani collection was bought en bloc by the King of Prussia after its sale in Paris in 1812.
Birmingham. Barber Institute.
Visitation. Canvas, 272 x 153.
The scene is transported from ' a town in the hill country of Judah' (Luke's Gospel) to contemporary Venice, where the pregnant Virgin Mary and her pregnant cousin Elizabeth meet on a typical stone bridge over a canal. One of a group of works painted in about 1577-78 for the late Gothic church of San Giacomo at Murano, which was demolished early in the nineteenth century. The main altarpiece and two organ shutters were acquired by Lord Exeter, and are still at Burghley House, Stamford. The Visitation was bought by Lord Clive from James Wright, the British Minister at Venice, in 1771 and passed by descent to the Earl of Powis. It was acquired by the Barber Institute in 1953. The other side altarpiece, a Resurrection, was in the collection of the Earl of Lonsdale at Lowther Castle, and now belongs to the Chelsea and Westminster Hospital in London.
Bordeaux. Musée des Beaux-Arts.
Holy Family with Female Saint (or Donor). Canvas, 77 x 96.
A young woman, possibly St Dorothy, her fair hair braided and dressed with pearls, presents the Christ Child with a basket of flowers and fruit. The grape vine at the right edge may allude to the Eucharist. Probably a fairly early work, executed with studio assistance (Benedetto Caliari?)). Recorded at Versailles in 1695. At Bordeaux since 1803.
Holy Family with Infant St John. Canvas, 105 x 92.
This dark-toned painting is probably a late product of Veronese’s workshop; some critics have seen the hand of Benedetto Caliari. One of 101 paintings sold by the banker Everhard Jabach to Louis XIV in 1671. Formerly at Versailles, it was sent to Bordeaux in 1803.
Boston. Gardner Museum.
Coronation of Hebe. Canvas, 387 x 387.
Hebe, personification of the beauty of youth, is crowned with flowers by a little cupid and handed a cup by Mercury. Other gods include Jupiter and Juno (under the eagle in the top left corner), Venus (flaunting herself to their left), Diana (next to Mercury), Minerva and armoured Mars (towards the centre of the canvas), Neptune (with his trident at the right edge) and Hercules (with his club towards the bottom). From the ceiling of a room in the Palazzo Della Torre at Udine. Sold in 1692, and taken to the house of Pietro Businello alla Croce at Venice. Later, probably in the early nineteenth century, it entered the Manfrin Gallery, from which it was sold in 1896. Bought by Mrs Gardner in 1899 from a Parisian dealer. It has been set into a gilded and painted ceiling in the ‘Veronese Room’ at Fenway Court. Late (probably 1580s). Sometimes called a studio work (eg. by Philip Hendy in his 1974 museum catalogue), but classed as autograph in Pignatti and Pedrocco’s 1995 monograph. A thorough restoration, carried out in situ, was completed in 2001.
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts.
Four Mythological Scenes. Canvas, 26/27 x 101.
These four long, narrow canvases – representing Atalanta and Meleanger, Actaeon and Diana, Jupiter and a Nude and Olympus – may have decorated wood panelling, a chest or piece of furniture or formed a frieze beneath the cornice of a room. They probably date from the 1560s. Recorded in 1658 in the Palazzo Gaggi at Genoa, where they remained until the early nineteenth century. Acquired in 1930 by Edward Jackson Holmes, Director of the Boston Museum, from the famous Italian dealer Alessandro Contini Bonacossi and gifted by Holmes's widow to the musem in 1960.
Dead Christ supported by Angels. Canvas, 98 x 71.
A smaller variant of the superb Pietà in the Hermitage at St Petersburg, a second angel replacing the Virgin behind Christ. Too small for a church altarpiece, it was presumably intended for a private house. Ridolfi (1648) mentions two pictures of the dead Christ with angels – one belonging to a ‘signor dottor Curtoni’ and the other to the Marchese Giustiniani. However, the proven history of the Boston picture goes back only to a private collection in Italy, whence it came to Durlacher Bros (New York), who sold it to the museum in 1930 for $16,000. Opinion has been divided over whether it should be classed as autograph or as a studio work
Brescia. Sant'Afra in Sant’Eufemia.
Martyrdom of St Afra. Canvas, 220 x 155.
St Afra was a semi-legendary early Christian martyr burnt at Augsburg during the Diocletian persecution. The picture hung originally over the high altar of the old church of Sant’Afra at Brescia (rebuilt since the Second World War and now called Sant’Angela Merici). Though signed ‘PAOLO CALIARI’, the altarpiece is generally considered to be largely or entirely a product of Veronese’s workshop. It is said to have been painted in 1566 for the Martinengo family.
Brunswick. Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum.
Baptism of Christ. Canvas, 142 x 208.
Veronese (and his studio) painted this subject at least a dozen times. This is perhaps the earliest version, close in style to the Bevilacqua-Lazise Altarpiece of about 1548 at Verona. It probably occupied the sidewall of a chapel, to be viewed from the left. Recorded in the collections of the Dukes of Brunswick since the eighteenth century.
Brussels. Musée Royaux des Beaux-Arts.
Holy Family with Saints. Canvas, 279 x 226.
One female saint has been identified as Catherine and the other variously as Elizabeth, Anne or Teresa. Enlarged at both top and bottom. The picture may have been designed by Veronese but executed mainly by a workshop collaborator (Benedetto Caliari?). It has been catalogued by the museum as a work of Carletto Caliari. Acquired by Louis XIV from Jabach in 1671. Allocated to Brussels (a French department under the Empire) in 1811.
Budapest. Fine Arts Museum.
Hercules and Neptune before Venice. Canvas, 141 x 141.
This octagonal canvas fits Ridolfi’s description of the centrepiece of the ceiling of the Sala del Magistrato delle Legne (Magistracy of Firewood) in the Doge’s Palace at Venice. It was probably painted shortly after the fire of 1574. The room was pulled down in 1807 to make room for a garden to the Royal Palace. The canvas was given to the National Gallery of Budapest by Archbishop János Lázló Pyrker in 1836. It is badly abraded in parts, and has sometimes even been considered a copy.
Portrait of a Man. Canvas, 120 x 102.
The young man, richly dressed in lynx fur, poses before an ivy-clad wall, a looped red curtain and, to the left, a landscape with ruins. This splendid portrait has much in common with the Portrait of a Gentleman in a Fur Cloak in the Pitti Palace and may date from around 1560. Acquired in 1912 from the collection of Count János Pálffy, where it was attributed to Moroni.
Crucifixion. Canvas, 149 x 90.
Once ascribed to Benedetto Caliari, but now usually accepted as a late work of Veronese himself, remarkable for its dramatic light effects. Acquired with the Esterházy collection in 1871.
Caen. Musée des Beaux-Arts.
Temptation of Saint Anthony. Canvas, 198 x 151.
The temptations of St Anthony, an Egyptian hernit, have been depicted by many artists, but Veronese's interpretation is dramatically original. The saint is tormented by a beautiful seductress (who digs her talons into his hand) and a Hercules-like demon (who attacks him with a horse's leg bone). The composition is strongly influenced by Roman Mannerism. The pose of the muscular devil is thought to derive from an engraving of Hercules after Rosso Fiorentino and that of the agonised saint from the figure of St Jerome in Parmigianino’s altarpiece of the Vision of St Jerome (National Gallery, London). One of a series of pictures commissioned for the side altars of Mantua Cathedral, which had been newly renovated in a Renaissance style by Giulio Romano. The patron was Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga, who ruled Mantua on behalf of his young nephews Francesco and Gugliemo. The other altarpieces were commissioned from different artists, including Domenico Brusasorci and Paolo Farinati (whose pictures remain in situ). Veronese’s canvas was completed by March 1553. It was removed from the cathedral by the French in 1797 and given to the City of Caen in 1801. It may have been cut down, particularly on the left.
Judith and Holofernes. Canvas, 245 x 269.
One of four paintings of heroic women seen by Ridolfi (1648) in the Casa Bonaldi in Venice. All four were acquired by Louis XIV from the German banker Everhard Jabach in 1662. Two of the others are now in the Louvre (Susanna and the Elders and Esther and Ahasuerus) and one is at Versailles (Eliezer and Rebecca). The Judith and Holofernes was given to the City of Caen in about 1800. It is not well preserved, and has sometimes been ascribed, in part at least, to Veronese’s workshop or to his brother Benedetto.
Christ in Glory with SS. Peter and Paul. Canvas, 96 x 70.
Another of the pictures acquired by Louis XIV from Jabach. Sent to Caen in 1811 as a work of Veronese’s circle, and often ascribed to the workshop by modern critics. Classed, however, as an autograph very late work by Pignatti and Pedrocco (1995).
Cambridge. Fitzwilliam Museum.
Mercury, Herse and Aglauros. Canvas, 232 x 173.
Signed on the plinth of the balustrade. The unusual subject is taken from Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Herse, daughter of a snake-tailed king of Attica called Cecrops, was loved by Hermes. Her jealous sister Aglauros (or Agraulus) tried to bar his way to her chamber and was turned by a touch of his wand into a statue of black stone. The golden female satyr squatting on the table (beside the viol, vase of flowers and bowl of fruit) probably symbolises lust, while the white flower on the floor to Herses’s left probably symbolises lost innocence. It has been suggested that Hermes (unusually depicted with a moustache) could be a portrait. One of several outstanding mythological pictures by Veronese that are recorded together in the 1621 inventory of Rudolph II’s collection at Prague. The others are in New York (Frick Collection and Metropolitan Museum). Along with other pictures from the imperial collection plundered by the Swedes in 1648, the Mercury, Herse and Aglaurus passed from Queen Christina’s heirs into the Orléans collection, which was auctioned in London in 1798-99. Bequeathed to Cambridge University by Viscount Fitzwilliam in 1816.
Time and Fame (350 x 168); Temperance (200 x 100); Justice (200 x 100).
Fragments from the fresco decoration of the Villa Soranzo at Sant'Andrea oltre il Muson, near Castelfranco. The villa was designed by Sanmicheli and decorated by Veronese, Battista Zelotti and Anselmo Canneri. These fresco fragments were among those removed by the last owner Filippo Balbi in 1818, just before the villa was destroyed. Of the 118 fragments reportedly detached by Balbi, ten were given to the Cathedral and at least forty were sold on the British market. One fragment, now in the Seminario at Venice, is signed by Veronese and bears the date 1551. The division of hands is not always obvious, and the fresco of Temperance (or Prudence) has been sometimes attributed to Zelotti.
Chicago. Art Institute.
St Jerome in the Wilderness. Canvas, 135 x 177.
One of several paintings of this subject by Veronese (and his workshop). There are others, all different in design, in the galleries of Venice and Washington and in the church of San Pietro Martire on the island of Murano. The Chicago painting may have been produced in Veronese’s workshop in the late 1580s. (The landscape has been ascribed to Carletto Caliari.) Acquired in Italy by the Reverend John Sanford, it was sold at Christie’s in 1839 for 23 gns and remained in England until the Second World War. Bought by the Art Institute (from Knoedler of New York) in 1945.
Creation of Eve. Canvas, 81 x 103.
Considerably damaged; some areas, such as the trees in the middle distance, are largely reconstruction. Given to the Art Institute by Charles H. Worcester of Chicago in 1930. Its history is unknown before 1929, when it was sold by a London dealer. It may have formed part of a series of scenes from Genesis, like the series by Carletto Caliari in the Uffizi.
Cividale del Friuli. Museo Archeologio.
Madonna crowned by Angels; Saint Roch. Canvas, each 149 x 105.
From the church of San Giovanni in Xenodochio in Cividale. The two small altarpieces are very late works, commissioned on 26 March 1584 and paid for ten weeks later on 12 June. Badly restored in 1854, and usually ascribed to Veronese’s workshop.
Cleveland (Ohio). Museum of Art.
Portrait of Agostino Barbarigo. Canvas, 102 x 104.
Agostino Barbarigo (b. 1516) was ambassador to Philip II of Spain, and in 1570 was appointed Provisioner General of the Venetian navy. He became a hero martyr after his death, from an arrow wound in the left eye, at the Battle of Lépanto in 1571. The posthumous portrait shows him in splendid armour holding the fatal arrow in his left hand. It has probably been cut down at the bottom, and may originally have been full length. First recorded in 1856 in the Manfrin collection, Venice (where the sitter was believed to be Onfré Giustiniani, commander of the ship that brought news of the victory). Subsequently in the Miethke collection (Vienna) and briefly the Brass collection (Venice), it was bequeathed to the Cleveland Museum in 1929 with the Holden collection. Another version (bust-length only) at Budapest has been ascribed to Carletto Caliari.
Annunciation. Canvas, 150 x 133.
Probably late. The motif of the Angel Gabriel descending on a cloud is repeated in an Annunciation by Veronese (or his workshop) in the Thyssen-Bornesmisza Collection, Madrid. Once in the Balboni collection at Venice; presented to the museum in 1950.
Denver. Art Museum.
Portrait of Vincenzo Scamozzi. Canvas, 94 x 82.
Born and raised in Vicenza, Vincenzo Scamozzi (1548-1616) is often described as the last great architect of the sixteenth century; he is best known as the designer of the Procuratie Nuove in St Mark’s Square. He is portrayed half-length, against a plain olive-green background, holding a wooden model of a Corinthian capital, the proportions of which he indicates with a pair of compasses. He seems around forty, suggesting that the portrait was painted at the very end of Veronese’s life. Little is known of the history of the portrait, which came from the collection of Charles Bayly. Once ascribed to Titian, it was published as a work of Veronese in 1961 (by Wilhelm Suida, in Arte Veneta, who thought it was a pendant to the Portrait of a Sculptor in the Metropolitan Museum, New York). The sitter was previously identified with the Bolognese architect Girolamo da Vignola (1507-73). It is only recently, following research for a 2003-4 exhibition at Vicenza, that he has been identified with Scamozzi.
Detroit. Institute of Arts.
Allegory of Painting. Canvas, 28 x 16.
This small canvas could have formed part of the decoration of a piece of furniture, such as a cassone, or it could have been a preparatory sketch for a larger painting. Two other canvases, identical in size and style, representing Diana and Minerva, are in the Hermitage, St Petersburg, and the Pushkin Museum, Moscow. Until 1924, the Allegory of Painting was in the Holford collection at Westonbirt House, near Tetbury in Gloucester. It was bought from Agnew’s in 1928 by Mr and Mrs Edgar Whitcomb, who donated it to the Institute in 1936.
Dijon. Musée des Beaux-Arts.
Madonna in Glory with Four Saints. Canvas, 337 x 219.
The Virgin and Child appear to SS. Anthony Abbot, Paul the Hermit, Peter and Paul. Commissioned from Veronese by the Confraternita di Sant’Antonio Abate at Pesaro, and paid for on 31 March 1586. Inscribed ‘Pauli Caleari’ on the plinth, bottom right. The execution may be largely or wholly by Veronese’s son Carletto. Plundered by the French in 1789 and sent to Dijon in 1809.
Finding of Moses. Canvas, 118 x 174.
Similar in composition (though not in dimensions) to paintings by Veronese of this subject in Dresden and Lyon. Usually ascribed to the artist’s studio or (specifically) Benedetto Caliari. Acquired by Louis XIV from the Duchesse de Créquy (whose husband had bought it from the painter Pierre Mignard). At Dijon since 1812.
Assumption of the Virgin (or Mary Magdalene). Canvas, 166 x 102.
Presumably a fragment from the upper part of a large altarpiece. Opinion has been divided over whether it should be classed an autograph or studio work. Probably acquired by Louis XIV from the German banker Everhard Jabach. At Dijon since 1803.
Douai. Musée de la Chartreuse.
Portrait of a Woman. Canvas, 106 x 87.
This exquisite (but damaged) portrait is close in style and format to the so-called Bella Nani in the Louvre, and may date from the late 1550s or early 1560s. The fair-haired young woman wears a sumptuous dress of burgundy velvet (front-laced with a low square neckline, cutwork sleeves and wide lace cuffs) and a pearl necklace with a great gold pendant. Formerly in the collection of the Duc de Lyons, and sold to the Douai Museum in 1871 by Mme Wagner. It was catalogued as a work of Paris Bordone until 1924, when Baron von Hadeln re-attributed it to Veronese in an article in the Burlington Magazine.
Madonna with the Cuccina Family. Canvas, 167 x 416.
Alvise Cuccina, a wealthy merchant from Bergamo, kneels in the midst of his large family – his wife Zanetta (who takes centre stage), daughter Marietta, seven young sons (one climbing against a porphyry column, another playing with a dog and the youngest in the arms of a nursemaid at the right edge), a recently deceased brother Antonio (in the red doublet) and another brother Zuanantonio. They are introduced by Faith, Hope and Charity to the Madonna and Child, enthroned on the left with John the Baptist and St Jerome. The family palace on the Grand Canal (now the Palazzo Papadopoli) is shown in the right background. As the youngest child, Zuambattista, was born in 1570 and Antonio died in 1572, the picture was probably painted in the early 1570s. It is one of four large devotional pictures painted by Veronese (and his workshop) for the Cuccina family. In 1645, shortly after Charles I of England had tried unsuccessfully to buy them, they were acquired from the family by Duke Francesco I d’Este for his collection in Modena. In 1745, when Francesco III d’Este fell into grave financial difficulties, they were sold with nearly one hundred other paintings to Elector Frederick Augustus II of Saxony and taken to Dresden.
Adoration of Magi; Wedding at Cana; Way to Calvary.
These three pictures were also painted for the portego of the Cuccina family’s new palazzo, and probably date from shortly after 1570. To judge from their dimensions, the Adoration of the Magi and the Wedding at Cana (each 206/7 x 455/7) were hung opposite each other, and the slightly smaller Way to Calvary (167 x 414) was hung opposite the Madonna with the Cuccina Family.
Resurrection of Christ. Canvas, 136 x 104.
In the right background, the Three Maries approach the empty tomb guarded by an angel. The composition seems to have been influenced by Titian’s altarpiece of 1522 in SS. Nazaro e Celso, Brescia. Probably painted in the late 1560s or early 1570s. There are later versions of this subject by Veronese (and his workshop) in the Pushkin Museum in Moscow, the Chelsea and Westminster Hospital in London and the church of San Francesco della Vigna in Venice. The Dresden picture is said to have been in the Imperial collection at Vienna. It was acquired in 1741 by Elector Frederick Augustus II.
Finding of Moses. Canvas, 178 x 277.
The Finding of Moses was a favourite subject of Veronese and his studio. There are
other versions at Madrid, Washington, Lyon, Dijon, Liverpool, Turin and elsewhere. Tiepolo’s painting of this subject at Edinburgh is derived from the Dresden version. Acquired in 1747 from the Casa Grimani de’ Servi at Venice. A companion picture of Christ and the Centurion is usually considered to have been painted largely by Veronese’s studio.
Portrait of Alessandro Contarini (?). Canvas, 132 x 102.
The name of the sitter – an old man, with greying beard, richly dressed in a cloak trimmed with lynx fur – is recorded in old inventories. This imposing three-quarter length portrait probably dates from the 1560s. It was sold to the Dresden Gallery by Ventura Rossi, who had acquired it in 1744 from the Casa Grimani-Calergi (now Ca’ Vendramin Calergi) in Venice.
Supper at Emmaus. Canvas, 120 x 181.
A variant of the middle part of the famous Supper at Emmaus in the Louvre. Among the pictures sold by Francesco III d’Este in 1745 to Elector Frederick Augustus II of Saxony. There is another, much smaller version in the Boymanns-van Beuningen Museum at Rotterdam.
Good Samaritan. Canvas, 167 x 253.
Another of the pictures from the Este collection at Modena. It is a very late work, unusually dark in tone and with a dramatic mountain landscape of trees and rocks. The famous parable, from the Gospel of Luke (10: 29-37), was illustrated several times by Veronese's contemporary Jacopo Bassano but the subject is otherwise rare in Renaissance art. The Samaritan pours oil and wine on the wounds of the man who had fallen among thieves, while the priest and the Levite hurry away along the rugged road.
Dublin. National Gallery of Ireland.
St Philip and St James the Less. Canvas, 204 x 156.
Seen by Ridolfi (1648) on the altar of a church in Lecce, in the heel of Italy. Probably executed largely by Veronese’s studio (Benedetto Caliari?). Acquired at Christie’s in 1889.
Edinburgh. National Gallery of Scotland.
St Anthony Abbot and a Donor (Antonio Petrobelli). Canvas, 199 x 118.
One of four surviving fragments of an altarpiece – the others are in Dulwich, Ottawa and Austin (Texas) – that was painted in about 1563 for the church of San Francesco in Lendinara (a small town near Rovigo). The picture was commissioned by the cousins Antonio and Girolamo Petrobelli, and the Edinburgh fragment shows Antonio with his name saint. The fragment was cut from the lower left side. The central figure of St Michael is lost apart from the head (now in Austin); his right arm, spear and wing were revealed in the upper right of the Edinburgh fragment in 1958 when the canvas was cleaned. Formerly (like the Ottawa fragment) in the Duke of Sutherland’s collection. Bought by the gallery in 1913.
Mars and Venus. Canvas, 165 x 127.
The armoured Mars takes Venus, naked except for some sumptuous drapery, on his knee. She soothes Cupid, who is startled by a lively little spaniel (possibly a symbol of fidelity). A comparatively late work (late 1570s or 1580s), produced with studio assistance. The surface is somewhat worn and the background has darkened. There is a workshop variant in the Musée Condé at Chantilly. The history of the Edinburgh picture has been traced back with certainty only to 1761, when the painting was in the collection of Sampson Gideon at Belvedere House in Kent – whence it was purchased by the Royal Institution in 1859. However, Charles I is known to have owned a Mars and Venus by Veronese (which he probably acquired in Spain, when he visited the country as Prince of Wales in 1623 to seek the hand of the Spanish Infanta). That painting was sold by the Commonwealth in 1650 to Jan Baptist Gaspars, a Flemish artist in Peter Lely’s workshop.
Holy Family with St Catherine. Canvas, 86 x 122.
The imposing blond female saint with a martyr’s palm was formerly identified as Barbara. Carlo Ridolfi saw this picture in 1648 in the house of the Counts Widmann, rich merchants from Carinthia (southern Austria) whose palazzo was near San Canciano. Shortly afterwards, it was bought by Paolo del Sera, who resold it in 1654 to Cardinal Leopoldo de’ Medici. It probably dates from the 1560s. The original light background, long concealed by dark repaint, was revealed by restoration in 1988.
Martyrdom of St Giustina. Canvas, 103 x 113.
In the left background, the saint’s coach is stopped on a bridge by Maximian’s soldiers, who bring her before the emperor to be stabbed to death. The two spectators on the right have been identified as posthumous portraits of Agostino and Andrea Barbarigo, who were both killed in the Battle of Lépanto in October 1571. One of several pictures of this subject by Veronese, his studio or school. These include a large altarpiece in the church of Santa Giustina at Padua, a painting formerly in the abbey of Santa Giustina in the same city and now in the gallery there, and a partial copy, once considered autograph but now attributed to Carletto Caliari, in Pavlov Castle in St Petersburg. The Uffizi version is first recorded in 1632 in the collection of Canonici di Ferrara and was bought by Leopoldo de’ Medici in about 1654 from Paolo del Sera.
Annunciation. Canvas, 143 x 291.
This large canvas was once ascribed to Giovanni Battista Zelotti, but is now usually accepted as an early work of Veronese (mid-1550s?). It is perhaps the earliest painting of this subject by Veronese or his studio; there are others at Venice, Washington, Madrid (Escorial and Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection) and Ohio. Yet another of the pictures bought by Leopoldo de’ Medici from Paolo del Sera.
Venus and Mercury presenting Eros and Anteros to Jupiter. Canvas, 150 x 243.
The subject is very unusual. The enthroned Jupiter is identified by his eagle, though only his legs are visible. Sometimes associated with a picture (‘Venus … after giving birth to Anteros shows him to Cupid held by Mercury’) by Veronese noted by Ridolfi (1648) in the house of Giambattista Sanudo in Venice; but that version also had ‘the Graces in attendance’. Probably one of Veronese’s earliest mythological canvases (early 1560s?). Acquired by Conte Alessandro Contini Bonacossi from an English private collection. Sold to Hermann Goering and taken to Germany during the Second World War, but recovered in 1953.
Conte Iseppo da Porto and His Son. Canvas, 207 x 137.
Conte Iseppo (or Giuseppe) da Porto was one of the richest men in Vicenza. He built the Palazzo Iseppo da Porto (no. 21 on the Contrà Porti), which was designed by Palladio and decorated by Zelotti, Brusasorci, Veronese and others. The little boy, hanging onto Iseppo’s right arm, is often called Adriano but is probably his eldest son Leonida (born in 1543). There is a pendant to this splendid full-length portrait at Baltimore, which shows Iseppo’s wife Livia and their eldest daughter Deidamia. The portraits were probably painted in about 1552. That date is inscribed on a derivative anonymous portrait of Iseppo in the Castello di Thiene (near Vicenza). It is also the year in which Iseppo seems to have moved into his new palazzo. The portraits were probably placed so the figures would appear to be standing in niches on either side of a window. Iseppo’s portrait is first recorded only in 1913, when it was in the Sedelmeyer Gallery in Paris. Acquired by Conte Alessandro Contini Bonacossi in 1924.
Virgin enthroned with Saints and Donor. Canvas, 50 x 36.
Once regarded as a workshop copy, this little picture is now thought to be an oil sketch (modello) for the Bevilacqua-Lazise Altarpiece. The altarpiece was painted for the church of San Fermo Maggiore at Verona and is now in the Castelvecchio Museum there. The sketch must be one of Veronese’s earliest surviving works (about 1548). Acquired by Cardinal Leopoldo de’ Medici in 1669 from Paolo del Sera, who may have got it from Veronese’s heirs. Transferred to the Uffizi in 1773 from the Medici villa at Poggio a Caiano.
Venus with a Satyr. Canvas, 154 x 117.
A painting of this subject (‘in which there is a Venus, who jokes with a satyr, and across there is a Cupid sleeping’) was seen in Veronese’s studio by Maximillian II’s ambassador, Von Dornberg, who mentioned it in a letter of 31 March 1571. The same picture, or one like it, was recorded by Ridolfi (1648) in the possession of Veronese’s nephew, Giuseppe Caliari. The Uffizi painting is from the Contini Bonacossi collection. (It was sold to Hermann Goering in 1941, but recovered by Conte Alessandro after the War.) It may be a studio copy. Another version, deemed superior by some critics, was formerly in the Koetser Gallery in Zurich and was sold at Sotheby’s in 1996.
Gentleman in a Fur Cloak. Canvas, 140 x 97.
This magnificent portrait, of a grey-bearded man wearing a black robe lined with snow-leopard fur, probably dates from about 1560. It was thought for a long time to be a portrait of Daniele Barbaro. This identification was abandoned when the portrait in Amsterdam of Barbaro as Patriarch of Aquileia was discovered. Bought in 1659 by Cardinal Leopoldo de’ Medici from Paolo del Sera for 200 ducats.
Man with Folded Hands. Canvas, 100 x 87.
This sober portrait, unusually dark-toned for Veronese, shows a seated man leaning to the left and joining his hands on the arm of his chair. It is another of the pictures bought by Leopoldo de’ Medici in 1659 from Paolo del Sera, who claimed to have acquired it from ‘a gentleman friend of mine who had it in a villa’. It may date from the early 1570s.
Baptism of Christ. Canvas, 195 x 132.
Once classed as only partly autograph (eg. by Fiocco in his 1934 monograph and Berenson in his 1957 Lists), but considered more highly since a restoration in 1974. According to an inventory of 1688, it came from Ancona.
St Benedict and Other Saints. Canvas, 195 x 135.
Benedict stands between his pupils Maurus and Placid, with his sister Scholastica and other nuns kneeling. In the heavens, the mystical marriage of St Catherine. From the church of Santa Caterina di Mazzorbo in Venice, where it was seen by Ridolfi in 1648. Acquired for Grand Prince Ferdinando by Niccolò Cassano in 1699. Generally regarded as a workshop picture, with Veronese perhaps contributing to the painting of the major figures.
Geneva. Musée d’Arte et d’Histoire.
Entombment. Canvas, 92 x 133.
Once at Versailles; given by Napoleon to the city of Geneva in 1804. Probably comparatively late. The execution has sometimes been ascribed partly or mainly to Benedetto Caliari.
Genoa. Palazzo Rosso.
Judith and Holofernes. Canvas, 195 x 176.
One of several versions of this subject by Veronese (or his studio); others are at Caen and Vienna. It may be a comparatively late work of around 1580, though a wide range of datings have been suggested over the years by different critics. It has been at Genoa since at least 1671, when it was seen by the Marquis de Seignelay in the Palazzo Balbi. A small oil sketch (modelletto) for the painting was in the Koetser Gallery, London.
Grenoble. Musée des Beaux-Arts.
Christ with the Widow and Sons of Zebedee. Canvas, 194 x 337.
The subject was formerly identified as Christ healing the Haemophilic. Sometimes identified with a painting described by Ridolfi (1648) and Boschini (1674) in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore at Venice, but perhaps more likely to be a picture seen by Bernini in 1665 in the house of the painter Roland Lefèbvre. Bought by Louis XIV in 1684 from the Marquis d’Hauterive. Formerly at Versailles, it was sent to Grenoble in 1811. The picture, which may date from the 1560s, appears to have been executed with considerable workshop assistance. A variant, smaller and with the composition reversed, was formerly in the Chrysler collection (sold in New York in 1998 for $717,500).
‘Noli Me Tangere’. Canvas, 67 x 95.
In the background, the Three Maries approach the empty tomb guarded by angels. Attributed either to Veronese or to a member of his workshop (such as Francesco Montemezzano). Probably late. In the eighteenth century, it passed through a number of notable aristocratic collections, including those of Principe di Carignano, Principe Conti and Conte Vaudreil. Acquired by the Grenoble museum in 1829 from a picture dealer.
Harewood House (near Leeds).
Portrait of a Gentleman of the Soranzo Family. Canvas, 184 x 113.
The youngish man, seated in an armchair, expensively but soberly dressed in a black cloak lined with ermine, is placed diagonally against a monumental column. This elegant portrait is probably a late work (1570s or 1580s). It is identified with a portrait of a gentleman of the Soranzo family mentioned in 1648 by Ridolfi, along with a companion portrait of the sitter’s wife, in the possession of the Dutch merchant Giovanni Reinst (Jan Reynst) at Venice. The pair of portraits is recorded again in 1666 in the posthumous sale of the collection of Niccolò Renier, a Flemish painter based in Venice. The portrait of the Soranzo gentleman was acquired around 1920 by Henry Lascelles (the 6th Earl of Harewood) from the collection of Sir Charles Robinson. That of his wife is untraced.
Houston. Museum of Fine Arts.
Dead Christ with an Angel and a Monk. Canvas, 86 x 127.
The young monk, who meditates on Christ’s wounded hand, is presumably a portrait of the donor, who appears in the guise of St Francis with marks of the stigmata on his crossed hands. Sometimes considered an autograph very late work and sometimes a studio piece. Unrecorded before 1957, when it was in the David M. Koetser Gallery at Zurich. Later in the collection of Ernest Joresco of Chicago, it was acquired by the museum in 1979.
Mars held back by Peace and Love. Canvas, 102 x 73.
With its low viewpoint, this picture may have formed part of the frieze of the room of a Venetian palazzo. Nothing is known of its history before 1991, when it was shown in an exhibition at the Walpole Gallery in London. It may date from the late 1570s.
Houston. Sarah Campbell Blaffer Foundation.
Saint Agnes (?). Canvas, 84 x 73.
It is uncertain whether this charming, well-preserved painting of a young woman caressing a lamb is a representation of Saint Agnes, a portrait of a lady (presumably named Agnese) in the guise of the saint, or an allegory of meekness or humility. It appears to be a late work, dating from around 1580. Previously owned by a Dr Emmons of Hamble in Hampshire, it seems not to have been referred to in print until 1957, when a photograph was reproduced in Berenson’s Venetian Painters.
Jaromerice (Czech Republic). Château.
Portrait of Collaltino Collalto. Canvas, 134 x 110.
Count Collaltino di Collalto was a feudal lord with lands in and around Treviso. As a soldier of fortune, he offered his services to King Henry VIII of England and also fought for the French against the English at Boulogne. He mixed with the Venetian literati and had a love affair with the poetess Gaspare Stampa. The portrait might date from around 1550, when Collaltino (who was born in 1523) was in his middle or late twenties. It was discovered in the castle at Jaromerice in 1990 and published as an early work of Veronese in 1997 (by William Rearick in Artibus et Historiae). It remained comparatively little known until 2014, when it was loaned to the Veronese exhibition in Verona. One reviewer (Tom Nichols in the October 2014 Burlington Magazine) called it 'crudely painted' and queried the attribution.
Kansas City. Nelson-Atkins Art Gallery.
Christ and the Centurion of Capernaum. Canvas, 141 x 207.
One of several versions of this subject by Veronese and/or his workshop. The Kansas City version was probably designed by Veronese but painted mainly by assistants. (Veronese’s own touch is perhaps seen in the heads of some figures.) It has been suggested that the man on the far right in modern armour is a self-portrait. The previous owner was Sir Anthony Midmay of Dogmersfield Park, Fleet, Hampshire.
Latisana (near Portogruaro in Friuli). Cathedral (San Giovanni Battista).
Baptism of Christ. Canvas, 490 x 295.
The picture shows not the moment of baptism but of St John’s recognition that Christ is the Messiah. It is said to have been commissioned in 1566, and was placed on the altar on 11 June 1567. Now located in an altar of 1763. Badly abraded, and sometimes regarded as a studio work.
Lille. Musée des Beaux-Arts.
Paradise. Canvas, 87 x 235.
An oil sketch (modello) for a large painting intended for the Sala del Maggior Consiglio of the Doge’s Palace. When Guariento’s fourteenth-century fresco of the Coronation of the Virgin was damaged beyond repair in the fire of 1577, Veronese, Francesco Bassano, Palma Giovane and Tintoretto all submitted designs for a new painting. Bassano’s modello is in the Hermitage (St Petersburg), Palma Giovane’s is in the Ambrosiana (Milan), and two modelli by Tintoretto are in the Louvre and the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum (Madrid). The commission was awarded jointly to Veronese and Francesco Bassano, but nothing had been done by either artist when Veronese died in 1588. The commission passed to Tintoretto, and the vast canvas was eventually executed from his design, mainly by his son Domenico and other assistants. The Lille modello is probably one of the two sketches for the Paradise mentioned by Ridolfi (1648) as still with the Caliari family. It was acquired by the Lille museum in 1879. Ascribed to Tintoretto at first, the true authorship was recognised in 1919 (by von Hedeln). Cut down on all four sides.
Martyrdom of St George. Canvas, 200 x 156.
The famous original by Veronese, of around 1564-66, was painted for the church of San Giorgio in Braida at Verona, where it still is. The Lille version, which is roughly half the size of the original, is sometimes classed an autograph replica and sometimes a workshop copy. Acquired by Louis XIV in 1671 from ‘Sieur de La Feuille’. Sent to Lille in 1801.
Liverpool. Walker Art Gallery.
Finding of Moses. Canvas, 153 x 255.
Cut down at both top and bottom. Listed as a late work in great part autograph by Berenson in his 1957 Lists, but ascribed by other critics to Veronese’s workshop or Benedetto Caliari. Once in the Orléans collection, it was presented to the Liverpool Royal Institution by a J. W. Gibsone in 1843.
London. National Gallery.
Conversion of Mary Magdalene(?). Canvas, 118 x 164.
The picture was traditionally entitled 'Christ and the Woman taken in Adultery' and has also been called 'Christ healing the Woman with an Issue of Blood'. However, it probably represents Mary Magdalene, the repentent prostitute, discarding her jewels after meeting Christ in the temple. This unusual subject does not appear in the Gospels but is found in Pietro Aretino's Humanita di Cristo (1535). Probably a very early work (about 1548-50). The two background figures behind Christ appear to be portraits and might represent the donor and his son. The picture, which could have been painted for the side wall of a chapel, is unrecorded before 1815, when it was in the collection of Sir Gregory Page Turner at Battlesden House, Bedfordshire. Bequeathed in 1876 with the collection of Wynn Ellis, a wealthy silk merchant, haberdasher and Liberal politician.
Consecration of St Nicholas. Canvas, 283 x 171.
The picture represents the consecration of the young Nicholas as Archbishop of Myra in Syria. He is presented to the patriarch, while an angel descends with a mitre and crosier. The picture was painted for the chapel of San Nicola in the monastic church of San Benedetto Po (near Mantua). It was one of three altarpieces commissioned for the church on 27 December 1561 and paid for three months later on 30 March 1562. The altarpieces were described soon afterwards by Vasari as the best pictures in the church. They have been replaced by copies. The Consecration of St Nicholas was bought in 1811 by the British Institution, which presented it to the National Gallery in 1826. One of the other altarpieces (a Madonna and Child in Glory with St Jerome) was destroyed in a fire at Yates’ Galleries in 1836. The third (Virgin appearing to St Anthony and St Paul) is now in the Chrysler Museum at Norfolk, Virginia.
The Family of Darius. Canvas, 236 x 475.
Alexander, the young man in red armour, points to his friend Hephaestion, whom the mother of Darius, Sisygambis, had mistaken for him. She begs forgiveness, but Alexander tells her that she is not mistaken, for Hephaestion is another Alexander. One of Veronese’s most famous pictures (described by Ruskin as ‘the most precious Paul Veronese in the world’) and one of the best preserved. The patron was Francesco Pisani (1514-67), whose portrait has been plausibly seen in the old man in blue introducing Darius’s family. As first suggested in the 1930s, and now established beyond doubt, its original location was not in Venice or in the Palazzo Pisani at Este but in the Palazzo Pisani, designed by Palladio, in the countryside at Montagnana. It probably hung on a sidewall of the piano nobile, above two doors and quite high up. The popular story (repeated by Goethe in 1786) that Veronese had been a guest of the Pisani and had left the painting, rolled up under his bed, as a gift is apocryphal. The painting is first recorded in 1568, when Francesco Pisani’s estate was the subject of a legal dispute between his disinherited widow, Marietta Molin, and his cousin and heir, Zan Mattio. The painting was moved to Venice after 1629, when the Pisani bought their palazzo (now the Gritti Palace Hotel) on the Grand Canal. In 1857 Conte Vettor Pisani, having no male heir, decided to sell it. Negotiations over its purchase extended over almost four years. There was great opposition to the sale in Venice because of the picture’s fame, and great opposition to the purchase in England because of the high price agreed (£13,000).
Adoration of the Kings. Canvas, 355 x 320.
Dated 1573 (on the bottom step). This was a remarkably productive year for Veronese’s studio: the enormous Christ in the House of Levy (Accademia, Venice) and two other large pictures also bear this date. Painted for the church of San Silvestro in Venice. It was not an altarpiece but a painting for the wall of the nave beside the altar of a confraternity devoted to St Joseph. After the church was remodelled in 1836-43, it was found that the larger pictures no longer fitted and they were sold. The Adoration of the Kings was bought by the National Gallery in 1855 for £1,977. The picture, which had been stored off its stretcher for many years, rolled up and folded, had been extensively restored before the sale. (The lower part seems to have been affected by damp and there were paint losses along vertical folds in the canvas.) The latest of several subsequent restorations was carried out in 2012-13, when the picture was also fitted with a new frame (which is mostly modern but incorporates some wood from a ruined late sixteenth-century Italian frame). There is a similar, probably contemporary, Adoration of the Kings by Veronese in the church of Santa Corona in Vicenza.
Vision of St Helena. Canvas, 198 x 116.
St Helena – wife or concubine of the Emperor Constantius Chlorus and mother of the Emperor Constantine – was apocryphally credited with finding the cross on which Christ was crucified. Venetian paintings usually depict her standing beside the cross. But she is shown here sleeping: an angel appears to her in a dream, shows her the cross and invites her to travel to the Holy Land to retrieve the relic. Probably a comparatively early work. The low viewpoint suggests that it may have been made as the outside, right-hand shutter of a church organ. The composition appears to be based on an engraving by Marcantonio Raimondi (or follower). There is another, later picture by Veronese of the same subject in the Vatican Gallery. Ridolfi (1648) mentions a picture by Veronese of St Helena (‘who dreaming sees the Cross supported by two angels’) in the Casa Contarini at Padua. The National Gallery picture belonged to the 1st Duke of Marlborough (d. 1722), and was purchased in 1878 for the high price of 3300 gns.
Four Allegories of Love. Canvas, each 190 x 190.
These four square canvases were probably painted for the compartments of a bedroom ceiling, and appear to represent the attributes, or stages, of love. In one (traditionally called ‘Unfaithfulness’), a nude woman is between a bearded man and a youth in a doublet to whom she slips a love letter. A second (‘Scorn’) shows Cupid beating with his bow a man lying on a marble cornice; to the left is a disdainful bare-breasted beauty (Virtue?) with Chastity (identified by the ermine she is holding). A third (‘Respect’) shows a man in armour (Mars?) being lead by Cupid towards a sleeping nude (Venus?). In the fourth (‘Happy Union’) a young woman, holding an olive branch with the young man beside her, is crowned with a garland by a naked female (Venus or Fortune?) sitting on a globe. The dog represents faithfulness, while Cupid tries to pull the woman away. The four allegories may date from around the mid-1570s. They are recorded in 1637 in an inventory of Rudolph II’s collection at Prague. Looted by the Swedes in 1648 and sold to the Duc d’Orléans after the death of Queen Christina. Bought by the Earl of Darnley early in the nineteenth century when the Orléans collection was sold in London, and acquired by the National Gallery in 1890-91. Thinly painted, they are somewhat worn and some pigments have discoloured (the smalt blue of the skies having turned grey and the green copper resinates of the foliage having oxidised to brown).
Rape of Europa. Canvas, 59 x 70.
A small version of the famous picture in the Doge’s Place (the composition is reversed and, among other differences, there are three rather than four attendant maidens). Long considered a copy or forgery. However cleaning in 1999 revealed the high quality of the brushwork. Recorded in 1637 in Emperor Rudolph II’s collection, and later owned by Queen Christina and the Duc d’Orléans; bequeathed by the Rev. Holwell Carr in 1831.
London. Courtauld Institute Galleries.
Baptism of Christ. Canvas, 53 x 44.
For some critics an autograph modello for a large altarpiece; for others a small devotional picture by Veronese’s workshop (Benedetto Caliari). Once in the Martinengo collection at Brescia; acquired by Lord Lee of Fareham in 1930.
London. Dulwich Picture Gallery.
Saint Jerome and a Donor (Girolamo Petrobelli). Canvas, 230 x 126.
A fragment from the right-hand side of a large altarpiece (around 4.65 metres high and 2.85 metres wide). It shows one of the donors (Girolamo Petrobelli) with his name saint. A fragment from the left-hand side, showing St Anthony Abbot and another kneeling donor (Girolamo’s cousin Antonio Petrobelli), is in Edinburgh, and the top part, a Pietà, is in Ottawa. The central part, showing St Michael, is lost, apart from the head of the saint (recently identified in the Blanton Museum at Austin, Texas). Restoration of the Dulwich fragment in 1948-53 revealed, under layers of repaint, St Michael’s dismembered hand holding a pair of scales at the left edge, the claw at the bottom left, and the rubbed head of St Jerome’s lion at the bottom right. In an incomplete German monograph on Veronese drafted in the early 1930s (but unpublished until 1978), Baron Detlev von Hadeln identified the altarpiece as one painted for the Petrobelli Altar in San Francesco, Lindinara. A manuscript description of the church records a date of 1563. The church was demolished and its contents dispersed in 1782. Veronese’s altarpiece was cut up in about 1788 by a Venetian dealer called Pietro Concolo. The Dulwich fragment was bought in Rome by the Scottish artist and dealer Gavin Hamilton, who sold it to the French dealer Noel Desenfans, whose collection was to form the nucleus of the Dulwich Gallery. The reconstructed altarpiece was exhibited at the gallery in 2009.
London. Hampton Court.
Mystical Marriage of St Catherine. Canvas, 148 x 199.
The Christ Child takes the ring from the infant St John and is about to place it on St Catherine’s finger. The classical building in the background resembles the Septizonium in Rome (demolished in the late 1580s). The picture was designed by Veronese but executed perhaps by a member of his studio (Benedetto Caliari?). It was enthusiastically described by Carlo Ridolfi in 1648, when it was in the great collection of the Dutch merchants Jan and Gerard Reynst at Amsterdam. After the Reynst brothers died, twenty-four of their best paintings were bought by the Dutch Republic for the very substantial sum of 80,000 guilders and presented in 1660 to Charles II of England.
London. Chelsea and Westminster Hospital.
Resurrection. Canvas, 259 x 158.
Probably painted in, or a little after, 1577-78 for a side altar of the church of San Giacomo, Murano. Another side altarpiece from the church is at Birmingham (Barber Institute), while the high altarpiece and the inside of the organ wings are at Stamford (Burghley House). By 1802 the Resurrection was in the collection of the Earl of Lonsdale at Lowther Castle, where it remained until 1947, when it was sold to Colnaghi. Acquired by the Trustees of the Westminster Hospital in 1950 for £9,000. Transferred to the new Chelsea and Westminster Hospital from the old Westminster Hospital on Horseferry Road (which closed in 1993).
Los Angeles. J. P. Getty Museum.
Portrait of a Nobleman. Canvas, 193 x 135.
The young man, dressed in black and wearing a sword, leans nonchalantly on a balustrade of a classical building with fluted columns. The Basilica of St Mark’s is visible, lower left, in an imaginary rural setting. This fine portrait probably dates from the 1560s or 1570s. By the late eighteenth century, it was in the Casa Moscardo at Verona, where it was engraved by Zancon as a self-portrait. It was sold in 1802 to an Englishman, Richard Vickris Pryor. During the Second World War, it was one of several Veroneses in the vast collection of Hermann Goering. It was acquired by Getty in 1964, and after a period on loan to the National Gallery, London, it entered the Getty Museum (then at Malibu) in 1971.
Baptism of Christ. Canvas, 109 x 89.
Possibly the Baptism (‘the Saviour at the Jordan with angels holding his clothes’) mentioned by Ridolfi (1648) in the collection of Cristoforo and Francesco Muselli in Verona. Usually judged a late work (early 1580s), executed with studio help. It was acquired in about 1830 by Charles Stirling of Keir in Scotland, and it remained with his descendents until 1963. Later in a private collection in Geneva, it was bought by the Getty Museum (through Colnaghi) in 1979.
Los Angeles. County Museum of Art.
Two Allegories of Navigation or Astronomy (?). Canvas, each 206 x 117.
The muscular old man in a turban, leaning against a Corinthian capital with a heavy iron anchor behind him, holds a planispheric astrolabe (a navigational instrument used to observe the positions of the sun and stars). The younger bearded man, also portrayed among classical ruins, gazes upwards and holds what was once thought to be a double-branched Byzantine cross but which has been identified more recently as a cross-staff (a tool used in astronomy and navigation before the quadrant and sextant). It is uncertain whether the two men represent historical characters, such as Ptolemy and Averroes, or are purely allegorical. The two pictures were clearly conceived as a pair, but could have formed part of a larger cycle (perhaps intended, it has been suggested, to decorate the library, Biblioteca Marciana, in Venice). Their early history remains a mystery. They were acquired in Italy around the middle of the nineteenth century by the Marquess of Breadalbane, but disappeared for many years after they were bequeathed by Robert Goelet to the Roman Catholic Church. They resurfaced at auction in 1973 with an attribution to Fragnonard (!). They may date from the late 1550s or early 1560s.
Lucca. Pinacoteca Nazionale.
Peter the Hermit before the Doge. Canvas, 210 x 312.
An oil sketch, or modello, for a tapestry commissioned for the Sala del Collegio of the Doge’s Palace. The canvas is not pricked for transfer and it is not known whether the tapestry was ever woven. The modello was probably painted around 1576-77. It is mentioned by Ridolfi (1648) in the possession of the artist’s nephew Giuseppe, and remained with the Caliari family until the end of the seventeenth century. It then went to Florence, and was transferred to Lucca in 1847 from the villa at Poggio Imperiale. It is in very poor condition and the execution is often acribed to Veronese's workshop. There is a free compositional sketch, in pen and ink with wash, in the Fine Arts Museum, Budapest.
Lyon. Musée des Beaux-Arts.
David and Bathsheba (?). Canvas, 191 x 224.
The traditional identification of the subject has been doubted – Susannah and the Elders is an alternative. The coat-of-arms on the pitcher (bottom left) has been variously identified as that of the Venetian Contarini family or of the Trevisani or Barbarini families of Vicenza. This sumptuous and erotic picture is usually considered a comparatively late work of the 1570s. It was in France by 1660 (with a certain ‘Monsieur de Talemon’) and entered the collection of the finance minister Nicolas Fouquet. Along with Veronese’s Perseus and Andromeda (now at Rennes), it was acquired by Louis XIV after Fourquet was accused of embezzlement in 1662 and his collection sequestrated. It was displayed at Versailles, where it was enlarged at the top and left side. (The extensions were removed in 1991.) Sent to the museum at Lyon in 1811.
Finding of Moses. Canvas, 130 x 115.
A variant – larger and with the composition reversed – of the famous painting in the Prado, Madrid. There are several other variants, those at Dresden and Dijon being closest in composition to the Lyon painting. Often consigned (perhaps harshly) to Veronese’s workshop. Bought by Louis XIV in 1685 for 5,000 livres from the art dealer Néret de La Ravoye. At Versailles until 1784; sent to Lyon in 1803.
Adoration of the Magi. Canvas, 134 x 294.
From the Palazzo dei Camerlenghi (the Venetian Treasury next to the Rialto Bridge). The three camerlenghi shown as donors (identified by the coats-of-arms of the Molin, Contarini and Zane families) were in office between October 1583 and October 1584. It was customary for retiring office-holders to offer a votive painting to the Palazzo. The earliest date for the painting is therefore 1584. The execution was clearly by members of Veronese’s workshop (Benedetto and Gabriele Caliari?). Acquired by Louis XIV in 1684 from the Marquis d’Hauterville. Sent to Lyon in 1803.
Christ preaching in the Temple. Canvas, 236 x 430.
The scene is set in a magnificent classical interior, with the twelve-year old Christ, pointing to heaven, seated on a raised dais off to the left. There are clearly portraits among the elders standing at the left edge and seated on the right in front of the semi-circular colonnade. (The grey-bearded man standing, with his right hand placed on his heart and the red cross of Jerusalem embroidered on his black cloak, might well be the donor.) Mary and Joseph, searching for their son, appear in the doorway in the background. The edge of the book held by the man seated beneath Christ bears Roman numerals that have been read as 1548. If this date is correct, the picture would be one of Veronese’s earliest works, but some critics have dated it considerably later (late 1550s or even late 1560s) on stylistic grounds. First certainly recorded in 1686 in the Salon de los Espejos in the Alcázar at Madrid.
Christ and the Centurion of Capernaum. Canvas, 192 x 297.
The kneeling centurion pleads with Jesus to cure his paralysed servant (Matthew VIII). The bearded man behind Christ could be a portrait of the patron. Generally considered the best of several paintings of this subject by Veronese and/or his workshop; there are others at Dresden, Munich, Kansas City and elsewhere. The Madrid version has been claimed to be the one described by Ridolfi in 1648 as having been in the Casa Contarini at Padua, but there is no firm evidence to support this identification. Bought for the King of Spain by his ambassador, Alonso de Cardenas, at the 1649 London sale of Charles I’s collection. Usually dated around 1570.
Finding of Moses. Canvas, 50 x 43.
Pharaoh’s daughter, dressed in the height of sixteenth-century Venetian fashion, is shown the infant Moses by her attendants. On the left, a black servant holds the rush basket in which he was found. On the right, a dwarf holds a pipe (recorder or shawn). Generally regarded as the finest of a number of pictures of the Finding of Moses by Veronese and/or his workshop. (There is one almost equally small and almost identical in composition at Washington; larger versions at Dresden, Lyon and Dijon in which the composition is reversed; a very large version at Turin apparently inspired by Raphael’s ceiling fresco in the Vatican Loggia; and yet another version at Liverpool with a substantially different composition.) The Madrid picture is probably one of two small versions of the subject that were owned by Charles I. It is recorded at the Alcázar in Madrid in 1666. On the evidence of drawings (including sketches on the back of a letter dated 28 September 1582), the various versions of the Finding of Moses may all date from the early 1580s.
Venus and Adonis. Canvas, 212 x 121.
Venus fans her lover, lying in her lap, and looks down at Cupid, who restrains the dogs that will lure Adonis to the hunt and his death. A late work – but no later than 1584, when it was described in Borghini’s Il Riposo. Together with its companion piece, the Cephalus and Procris now at Strasbourg, it was acquired in Venice by Velázquez in about 1650 for the King of Spain. Strips have been added to the top and bottom, increasing the height by about half a metre.
Youth between Vice and Virtue. Canvas, 102 x 153.
Virtue, a modestly cloaked woman, leads the patrician youth away from Vice, a sensuous woman seated at the entrance of a grand villa. Possibly the picture of this subject seen by Ridolfi (1648) in the house of Giambattista Sanualdo at Venice. By 1686 it was in the Alcázar at Madrid.
Penitent Magdalen. Canvas, 122 x 105.
A late work, dated 1583. Once owned by Isabella Farnese, it had entered the Spanish royal collection by 1746.
Annunciation. Canvas, 440 x 188.
Signed and dated 1583, but usually ascribed partly or wholly to Veronese’s workshop.
Madrid. Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection.
Lady with a Lapdog. Canvas, 105 x 79.
Usually identified with a portrait mentioned by Ridolfi (1648) in the Muselli collection at Verona and included in a 1662 inventory of the family’s possessions. An alternative suggestion is that it could be the ‘Portrait of a Lady with a Little Dog’ by Veronese listed in an inventory of Rubens’s collection drawn up after the painter’s death in 1640. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the picture was in Paris – first in the Orléans collection (where it was engraved as ‘the Daughter of Paolo Veronese’) and later the collections of the Comte de Pourtalès and of Mrs Lyne Stephens (the dancer Pauline Duvernay). Acquired by Baron Heinrich Thyssen-Bornesmisza by 1930. The picture is considerably restored. It has been accepted as an autograph Veronese by many critics (including Berenson in his 1957 Lists and Richard Cocke in his 1984 volume on the artist’s drawings), but some Italian critics (including Pignatti and Pedrocco in their 1995 monograph) have ascribed it to Veronese’s workshop (Benedetto or Carletto Caliari). Evidence that Veronese at least contributed to the composition is afforded by a preparatory black chalk drawing in the Louvre. Datings have ranged from the early 1570s to mid-1580s.
Annunciation. Canvas, 110 x 87.
In the background, a great loggia with a distant landscape viewed through an arch. The pet puppy sitting by the Virgin’s prie-dieu resembles that in the Lady with a Lapdog. One of several related versions of the Annunciation by or dependent upon Veronese; there are others in Venice (Accademia), Washington, Cleveland (Ohio) and Austin (Texas). Once considered a comparatively early work of about 1560, the Thyssen picture has been more recently judged a late work of Veronese or his workshop. Acquired by Baron Heinrich by 1930 from an unknown source. In 2004 the picture was placed on loan with the newly refurbished Museu Nacional d’Art in Barcelona.
Maser (near Volpi). Villa Barbaro.
The villa was built by Palladio for Daniele Barbaro and his brother Marcantonio. Veronese and his brother Benedetto decorated the main rooms of the piano nobile, which is shaped like a double ‘T’, with delightful frescoes. The exact date of the work is uncertain, but there is circumstantial evidence to suggest that much of it was done between April and October 1561. The programme was probably devised by Daniele Barbaro himself. The idealised landscapes in the central hall (Sala a Crociera) recall Vitruvius’s description of Roman wall paintings representing ‘landscape gardening, harbours, headlands, shores, rivers, springs, straits, temples, groves, cattle, hills and shepherds’. The five adjacent rooms have allegorical ceiling frescoes. In the Sala degli Sposi there is an Allegory of Conjugal Love, where a married couple (perhaps symbolising Marcantonio and Giustiniana Barbaro) place themselves under the protection of Hymen, Juno and Venus. Other ceilings depict Faith and Charity (Stanza della Lucerna), Abundance, Fortitude and Envy (Stanza del Cane), Divine Love or Universal Harmony (Sala di Olimpo), and an Allegory of Bacchus, in which the god reveals the mysteries of wine to the Lares, protectors of the Barbaro family (Sala di Bacco). Other decorations in the villa are simply illusionistic caprices. Musicians project into the Sala a Crociera from simulated niches in the corners, while painted banners and lances rest in the corners. Witty touches include a dog and cat on ledges in the Stanza del Cane, cleaning utensils on a sill in the Stanza degli Sposi, and family members and servants glimpsed in painted doorways. The famous hunter coming through a door is usually believed to be a self-portrait. The frescoes suffered in the nineteenth century at the hands of Austrian soldiers, who slashed many of the landscapes. They were restored by Lochoff in 1939.
Feast in the House of Simon. Canvas, 275 x 710.
On the left, the Magdalen anoints Christ’s feet; on the right, Judas rises from the table to protest. From the refectory of the Hieronymite convent of San Sebastiano at Venice. Taken to the Brera in 1817 in substitution for the Feast of St Gregory, which was returned to the sanctuary of Monte Berico at Vicenza. According to Ridolfi, it was painted in 1570 – a year in which Veronese is documented as having received payment for unspecified work at San Sebastiano.
Baptism and Temptation of Christ. Canvas, 248 x 450.
Two scenes from the life of Christ are combined in the one picture. In the left foreground, he is baptised by St John in the River Jordan. In the middle ground on the right, he is tempted by the Devil, who offers him all the kingdoms of the earth (imaginatively represented by the exotic buildings in the distance). Perhaps the finest of a series of eleven canvases painted by Veronese and his workshop in about 1581-82 for the small church of San Niccolò ai Frari in Venice. (A large Crucifixion and two ceiling canvases are in the Venice Accademia, an Adoration of Shepherds and figures of Evangelists are now mounted on the ceiling of the presbytery of the Chapel of the Rosary in SS. Giovanni e Paolo, and two monochrome Prophets, originally at the sides of the high altar, are in the Fondazione Cini.) The Baptism and Temptation of Christ hung on the right wall of the presbytery, beneath a Last Supper by Veronese’s son Carletto. It was transferred to the Brera in 1809.
Agony in the Garden. Canvas, 108 x 180.
A night scene of great emotional power. Christ faints into the arms of the 'angel that appeared from heaven and strengthened him' (Luke: 22, 43). The apostles Peter, James and John sprawl in sleep. From the church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Venice. It is one of five paintings by Veronese in the church mentioned by Ridolfi in 1648. A very late work, probably painted in about 1584, when the wealthy citizen and ducal secretary Simone Lando left money in his will to embellish the choir of the church. Transferred to the Brera in 1808.
Last Supper. Canvas, 230 x 523.
Commissioned by a confraternity of the Sacrament for the church of Santa Sofia in Venice, where it was originally placed on the entrance wall. The church (near the Ca’ d’Oro) was closed in 1810 and the Last Supper was sent to the Brera in 1811. A very late work (almost certainly after 1581, as it is not mentioned in Francesco Sansovino’s description of the church in his Città Nobilissima of that year). Perhaps reflecting Counter-Reformation ideas, the setting is more modest than in Veronese’s earlier opulent Feasts. The asymmetric composition (with the long table set diagonally instead of being viewed from the front) and the dark tonality recall Tintoretto. Only since the 1930s has the painting been widely accepted as an autograph Veronese.
St Anthony Abbot enthroned with SS. Cornelius and Cyprian. Canvas, 270 x 180.
St Anthony, enthroned as abbot on a high pedestal, looks down on St Cornelius, who reads from a book held up by a page. St Cyprian stands on the right. From the high altar of the Benedictine church of Sant’Antonio on the island of Torcello, where it was seen by Ridolfi in 1648. The convent was home to the nuns of San Cipriano of Mestre, which explains the presence of Saints Cornelius and Cyprian in the altarpiece. The picture probably dates from about 1570 (the year the altars of the church were regilded). Removed to the Brera in 1808, after the convent was closed. Sometimes (harshly) ascribed to Veronese’s workshop. Previously dulled by old varnish, its colouring can be better appreciated since restoration.
Modena. Galleria Estense.
SS. Geminianus and Severus (341 x 240); St John the Baptist (247 x 122); St Menna (247 x 122).
The SS. Geminianus and Severus originally decorated the outside of the shutters of an organ; the St John the Baptist and St Menna decorated the inside of the shutters. The organ was commissioned by Benedetto Manzoni in 1558 for the church of San Geminiano, and was described as finished by Sansovino in 1561. After the church (which was in St Mark’s Square, opposite the basilica) was destroyed in 1807, the St Menna was transferred to Modena, but the SS. Geminianus and Severus (joined together as one picture) and the St John the Baptist were taken to the Imperial Gallery in Vienna and returned to Italy only in 1919. It has been suggested that the swaggering St Menna in armour could be a self-portrait (Rearick (1988)) or a portrait of Benedetto Caliari (Xavier Salomon in the August 2008 Burlington Magazine).
Montagnana (south west of Padua). Duomo (Santa Maria).
Transfiguration. Canvas, 558 x 260.
In the upper part, on a bank of cloud and against a glory of golden light, Christ speaks with Moses and Elijah on the summit of Mount Tabor. Prostrate on the ground below, the apostles Peter, James and John are awe-struck by the glimpse of Paradise. Signed, bottom left. A comparatively early work, commissioned for the high altar of the cathedral by Cardinal Francesco Pisani, Bishop of Padua, on 3 June 1555 and finished by the end of the following year. It was for Francesco Pisani’s Palladian villa at Montagnana that Veronese painted the famous Family of Darius (now in the National Gallery, London).
Montreal. Museum of Fine Arts.
Christ crowned with Thorns. Canvas, 76 x 57.
The composition, with Christ seen from the waist up, crowned with thorns and holding a reed cross, seems clearly to have been inspired by Titian’s paintings on the theme, such as those in the Prado and at Dublin. Attributed to Veronese as a very late work of the mid-1580s. Acquired by the museum in 2009 from the Galerie Maison d’Art in Monaco.
Moscow. Pushkin Museum.
Resurrection of Christ. Canvas, 97 x 140.
A variant of the painting at Dresden. From the collection of Sir Robert Walpole at Houghton Hall in Norfolk. Valued (along with a painting of Pentecost now attributed to a follower of Veronese) at £200 in the sale of pictures in 1779 to Catherine the Great. Until 1928 it was in the Hermitage at St Petersburg, where it was considered a copy. Now regarded as an at least partly autograph late work (about 1580?).
Minerva. Canvas, 28 x 16.
From the same series as the Diana in St Petersburg and the Allegory of Painting in Detroit. Their original purpose is uncertain: one theory is that they were preliminary sketches for larger paintings; another is that they decorated an item of furniture. Acquired for the Hermitage in 1772 with the Crozat collection. Transferred to the Pushkin Museum in 1930.
Munich. Alte Pinakothek.
Cupid with Two Dogs. Canvas, 100 x 134.
This unusual picture is complete – and not a fragment of a larger composition as has sometimes been assumed. One suggestion is that it symbolises love (represented by Cupid) as a harmonising force in the natural world (represented by the two dogs). Another is that it symbolises fidelity (represented by the two dogs) in love (represented by Cupid). Probably late (early 1580s). First recorded, with an attribution to Veronese, in the 1692 inventory of Schleissheim Castle.
Murano. San Pietro Martire.
St Jerome in the Desert. Canvas, 231 x 147.
Commissioned by Fr. degli Alberi in 1566 for the Cappella di San Girolamo, near the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli on Murano, and moved to Santa Maria degli Angeli in 1667. There are other paintings of this subject by Veronese (and his workshop) in the Accademia at Venice and at Chicago and Washington. All are different in composition.
Murano. Palazzo Trevisan (opposite the Museo Vetrario).
Traces of Veronese’s fresco decoration, mentioned by Vasari (1568), survive in the Saletta della Olimpia on the first floor, including a scene of Venus and Amorini in the central octagon of the ceiling. The ceiling fresco from the Sala Meridionale on the ground floor was removed by the French, and is now – very damaged and in two parts – in the Louvre.
New Haven. Yale Art Gallery (on loan from Barber Welfare Foundation).
Mystical Marriage of St Catherine. Canvas, 58 x 91.
St Catherine kneels in the centre of the composition; the Child, astride the Virgin’s knee, takes the saint’s fingers with one hand and holds the ring with the other; St Anne and Joseph behind. A very early work, related in composition to a picture of the same subject at Tokyo that is likely to date from 1547. Formerly in the collection of the Princes of Liechtenstein. It came to the Barber Foundation from the estate of Catherine Barber Hickox of New York (died 1970).
New Orleans. Isaac Delgardo Museum of Art.
‘Sacra Conversazione’. Canvas, 103 x 128.
St Lawrence on the left; St Agnes (with lamb) and St Anthony Abbot on the right. Probably painted in the 1560s, with considerable studio assistance. By 1767 the picture was in the collection of the Princes of Liechtenstein; acquired by Samuel H. Kress in 1952 and allocated to the New Orleans Museum the following year.
New York. Metropolitan Museum.
Mars and Venus. Canvas, 206 x 161.
Cupid ties the leg of the naked Venus to that of the armoured Mars with a ribbon. Milk flows from Venus’s right breast, symbolising fecundity, the nourishing effects of love or (on a more elaborate interpretation) the transformation through love of chastity into charity. The scene on the right, showing Cupid barring the advance of Mars’s horse by holding the god’s sword against the animal’s legs, probably represents love restraining passion. In the background, a marble satyr supports a broken entablature. While the picture’s detailed meaning is disputed, there can be little doubt that the intention is erotic and that in a general way it signifies the triumph of love over war. The picture is signed at the bottom on a marble fragment. It was painted for Rudolph II by 1584, when it is mentioned in Borghini’s Il Riposo. It is one of four superb mythological pictures by Veronese of similar size that are recorded together in the posthumous 1621 inventory of Rudolph’s collection; two are now nearby in the Frick Collection, New York, and the other is in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. The four mythologies remained together for around two hundred years – in the Imperial collection at Prague Castle (until 1648), Queen Christina’s collection at Stockholm and Rome (until 1689), the Odescalchi collection at Rome (from 1696), and the Orléans collection at Paris (from 1721). The French Revolution eventually separated the paintings, which were sold in London at the end of the eighteenth century. From 1866, the Mars and Venus was in Lord Wimborne’s collection in London. It was sold for £6,300 at Christie’s in 1903, and bought by the Metropolitan Museum in 1910.
Portrait of Alessandro Vittoria. Canvas, 111 x 82.
Alessandro Vittoria (1525-1608) was the most important Venetian sculptor of the later sixteenth century, and collaborated with Veronese on the decoration of the Villa Barbaro and Palazzo Trevisan. He is shown standing behind a table covered with an Oriental carpet, holding a plaster modello for his statue of St Sebastian, carved in 1561-63 for the church of San Francesco della Vigna. The marble torso on the left is antique. The portrait probably dates from about 1570-75. Formerly in the collection of Earl Brownlow at Ashridge Park, Hertford; it was sold at Christie’s in London in 1923, simply as a ‘Portrait of a Sculptor in a Black Dress’, for the astonishingly low price of 5 gns. The sitter was identified as Alessandro Vittoria in 1937 when the portrait was being exhibited at the Cleveland Museum. (An alternative identification with Vittoria’s younger rival Girolamo Campagna (1549-1625) has been proposed more recently.) Acquired by the Metropolitan Museum in 1946 from an Italian collection.
Portrait of a Boy with a Greyhound. Canvas, 175 x 102.
The youth, said traditionally to be a member of the Colleoni family of Bergamo, is portrayed standing full-length, dressed in a gold and black doublet and hose and stroking the neck of the white greyhound beside him. The portrait may date from the 1570s. It is somewhat worn and the blue pigment (smalt) used for the sky has turned grey. From the Martinengo collection, Brescia. Acquired around 1904 by the New York sugar tycoon Henry Osbourne Havemeyer, whose widow bequeathed it to the Metropolitan Museum in 1929.
St Catherine of Alexandria in Prison. Canvas, 116 x 84.
The saint is visited by the Holy Ghost in the form of a dove, whose radiance pierces the gloom of the prison cell. She holds the palm of martyrdom in her right hand and her broken wheel is beneath her feet. Probably late (1580s). There are no old references to the picture, which was sold at Christie’s, New York, in 1992 for $440,000 and donated anonymously to the museum in 1999.
New York. Frick Collection.
Allegory of Wisdom and Strength. Canvas, 215 x 167.
The female figure, standing on a small globe and gazing towards heaven with a divine light above her head, is believed to represent Truth or Divine Wisdom. Hercules, looking downwards at worldly riches (crowns, sceptres, jewels, coins and military banners) and love (represented by Cupid), appears to represent worldly vanities, brute force and strength. Lower left on the antique column is an inscription from the Book of Ecclesiastes: OMNIA VANITAS (‘All is Vanity’). The picture is a pair with the Allegory of Virtue and Vice, also in the Frick Collection. They were in Rudolph II’s collection at Prague, and later the collections of Queen Christina at Rome and the Duc d’Orléans in France. When the Orléans collection was sold in London in 1798-99, they were bought by Thomas Hope and remained with his descendents until the end of the nineteenth century. Acquired by Henry Frick in 1912 from Knoedeler & Co. for $200,000.
Allegory of Virtue and Vice. Canvas, 219 x 170.
The subject appears to be a version of the Hercules at the Crossroads theme: Honour (a young man in glistening white satin) escapes the embrace of Vice or Death (a lascivious woman, elaborately coiffured, whose costume reveals half her back) into the arms of Virtue (a serious young woman, modestly dressed in a green gown and wreathed in laurel). The elegantly dressed young man could be a portrait. The Latin inscription, upper left, means ‘Honour and virtue flourish after death’. The Virtue and Vice is not quite as well preserved as the Wisdom and Strength (the paint surface flattened by the relining of the canvas and in places abraded).
Norfolk (Virginia). Chrysler Museum.
Virgin appearing to St Anthony Abbot. Canvas, 285 x 170.
The Virgin and Child appear in a blaze of light to St Anthony (with crutch and rosary) and St Paul the Hermit (who had been studying the Bible in his lap). Painted for the chapel of Sant’Antonio Abate (second on the right of the nave) in the Benedictine abbey of San Benedetto Po, near Mantua. It was one of three altarpieces executed by Veronese for the church in the first three months of 1562. The Consecration of St Nicholas in the National Gallery, London, is one of the others. The third painting (a Madonna and Child in Glory with St Jerome) is lost, but is known through an eighteenth-century copy (in situ). The altarpieces were part of a decorative programme that had started twenty years earlier, when Abbot Gregorio Cortese commissioned Giulio Romano to restore the church. The altarpieces (there were fifteen in all by various artists) were framed in inlaid wood and installed in richly ornamented side chapels closed by gilt gratings. Veronese’s three paintings were removed from the church in Napoleonic times. The Virgin appearing to St Anthony was acquired in 1954 by Walter P. Chrysler from a private collection in France.
Olomouc (Czech Republic). Archdiocesan Museum.
Twelve Apostles. Canvas, 170 x 178.
Signed on the book. A fragment, identified in 1960 (by the Czech art historian Eduard Safarif) as the lower part of an Ascension painted in 1575 for the church of San Francesco in Padua. It was cut out of the frame by thieves in the early seventeenth century. passed through the Arundel collection in England, and was acquired by Bishop Karl Liechtenstein of Olomouc in 1673. The fragment was previously displayed in the National Gallery at Prague; the new museum was opened in the Archbishop’s Palace at Olomouc in 2006. The two parts of the Ascension were reunited for the Veronese e Padova exhibition held in Padua in 2014.
Omaha. Joslyn Art Museum.
Venus and Cupid with a Mirror. Canvas, 161 x 121.
Venus, twisting her head to the right to look in a mirror held up by Cupid, adjusts the golden scarf in her hair. She is seen from the back, whereas in Titian’s related (but more erotic) version of the subject at Washington she is shown from the front. On the floor is a pair of amorous doves. Probably a late work of the 1580s, executed with workshop assistance. It was seen by Ridolfi (1648) in the Bevilacqua collection at Verona. (The collection, which was started in the later sixteenth-century by Mario Bevilacqua and housed in the family palazzo on the Corso, was known mainly for its antique marbles but also included Veronese’s Portrait of a Woman with a Dog (now in the Louvre).) Sold by the Bevilacqua to an Englishman, Richard Vickris Pryor, in 1805, and later in the collection of the painter Sir Thomas Lawrence, which was sold at Christie’s in 1830. Acquired by the Joslyn Museum in 1942. Restored for the exhibition Titian, Tintoretto, Veronese held in 2009-10 at Boston and Paris.
Ostuni (near Brindisi). Chiesa dell’Annunziata.
Deposition. Canvas, 280 x 170.
This very damaged picture – which is abraded, has been slashed in several places, repaired and restored, and has probably been cut down at the top – was presented to the convent at Ostuni in 1574 by Andrea Albrizio, the Venetian Vice-Consul in the town. It was stolen in 1975 and recovered in 1977.
Ottawa. National Gallery of Canada.
Pietà. Canvas, 216 x 243.
The top part of a large altarpiece; fragments of the lower part are in Dulwich, Edinburgh and Austin (Texas). The altarpiece was painted in about 1563 for the Petrobelli Altar in San Francesco, Lendinara (near Rovigo). As would be expected of such a large work of this date for a provincial church, it was probably produced with some workshop assistance. After the picture was cut up in about 1788, the Ottawa fragment was sold to a Colonel Campbell. By 1836, it was in the Duke of Sutherland’s collection at York House. It was acquired by Agnew’s in 1924 and shipped to New York for sale. It was damaged on the transatlantic crossing when the hold of the ship was swamped with seawater, and acquired by the Ottawa gallery for a modest price in 1925. Rarely exhibited for many years because of its poor condition, it was restored in 2007-9. The canvas, which had been irregularly cropped and was displayed in a rectangular frame, was returned to its original width and arched shape.
Penitent Magdalen with an Angel. Canvas, 170 x 135.
According to popular legend, the penitent Magdalen lived as a hermit in the wilderness, where she was visited by angels. A mature work, probably painted with studio assistance in the 1560s or 1570s. The distortion of the figure suggests that the painting was intended to be seen from the left, probably on the sidewall of a chapel. First recorded in England in1810; by 1823 it belonged to Jacob Fletcher, and it remained with his descendants until 1922. Acquired by the gallery in 1927.
Rest on the Flight into Egypt. Canvas, 165 x 264.
Joseph fetches water and the angel dates. Egypt, the holy family’s destination, is indicated in the far right distance by the obelisk on the banks of the Nile. Usually ascribed to Veronese’s workshop (though the master’s own touch has sometimes been seen in parts, such as the angel, the Virgin’s face and the Child). There is a signed variant in the Ringling Museum at Sarasota, Florida. Possibly the picture mentioned by Ridolfi (1648) in the house of the Marchese Pallavicini at Genoa. By 1830 it was in the collection of Julian Williams, British Consul to Seville. Acquired by the gallery in 1936.
Oxford. Ashmolean Museum.
Holy Family with the Infant Baptist and St George. Canvas, 41 x 50.
A variant, about half size, of a painting in the gallery at Vicenza. Probably quite early (early 1550s) and doubtless intended for a private client. First recorded at the end of the nineteenth century in the possession of Sir Richard Green Price. Bought by the Museum in 1952.
Oxford. Christ Church.
Marriage of St Catherine. Canvas, 66 x 87.
A Franciscan saint or donor on the left. This picture has received comparatively little attention in the Veronese literature. It was consigned to the artist’s school by Tancred Borenius (1916 Christ Church catalogue) and by Benedict Nicolson (1964 Burlington Magazine), but catalogued as a ‘fine original’ by Byam Shaw (1967) and accepted as an autograph late work by Pignatti and Pedrocco (1995). One of around 250 paintings bequeathed to the college by General John Guise in 1765.
Padua. Museo Civico.
Martyrdom of St Giustina. Canvas, 104 x 138.
In the right background, the saint, having left her carriage, is illuminated by a shaft of heavenly light as she prays. From the abbey of Santa Giustina at Padua, where it hung over the Abbot’s private altar. It is sometimes considered earlier than the large altarpiece of 1575 in the church of Santa Giustina. (An engraving of 1691 bears the date 1556, but this is not always accepted as reliable evidence.) There is yet another version in the Uffizi. Transferred to the museum in about 1842.
Martyrdom of St Primus and St Felician. Canvas, 350 x 190.
The brothers Primus and Felician (or Felicianus) were early Christian martyrs: according to their legendary Acts, they were executed together at Nomentum (near Rome) during the persecutions of Diocletian and Maximian. One of two altarpieces commissioned by Abbot Placido da Marostica in about 1562 for the Benedictine abbey church of Santa Maria Assunta at Praglia (some 20 km. south-west of Padua). At the museum since 1886. The companion altarpiece, representing a Glory of Angels, is in the museum of the abbey.
Padua. San Francesco.
Ascension. Canvas, 394 x 194.
The altarpiece was commissioned for the Capodivacca altar in the left transept and now hangs on the inner façade. It was probably painted in 1575 (when both Veronese and his brother Benedetto are recorded in Padua). Greatly damaged and restored. The lower part was removed by thieves and then redone (as the inscription states) by Pietro Damini in 1625. The Twelve Apostles at Olomouc (formerly National Gallery, Prague) has been identified as the original lower part. The two parts were reunited for the Veronese e Padova exhibition held at Padua in 2014.
Padua. Santa Giustina.
Martyrdom of St Giustina. Canvas, 525 x 240.
The church of Santa Giustina is shown in the background. The altar was built in 1560, but the picture was not painted until fifteen years later. The first payment was made in October 1574 and the altarpiece was probably completed in 1575. Signed by Veronese alone, but generally believed to have been painted in collaboration with Benedetto Caliari, who is recorded with him in Padua at this time. A squared drawing for the picture is at Chatsworth.
Holy Family with Saints and a Donor. Canvas, 90 x 90.
St George is the saint on the left. On the right, St Giustina introduces the donor, who has been identified as Girolamo Scrocchetto, the abbot who commissioned the Wedding at Cana for San Giorgio Maggiore. The abbot is portrayed as a guest on the right of the Wedding at Cana. Here he is shown as a much younger man; so the painting presumably dates from early in his first period as abbot, between 1551 and 1554. Acquired by Louis XIV in 1671 from the German banker Everhard Jabach. (The French king acquired no less than twenty-two paintings by, or attributed to, Veronese between 1662 and 1683, more than half of them from Jabach.)
Supper at Emmaus. Canvas, 290 x 440.
On the right, the unidentified donor and his family; in the foreground two small girls play with a dog. Signed, lower left, on the pavement. This magnificent picture is usually dated around 1555-60, and is possibly the earliest of Veronese’s paintings of biblical suppers. First recorded in 1635 in an inventory of the Duke of Savoy’s collection at Turin, and given shortly afterwards to Maréchal Duc Charles I de Créquy. After the Maréchal was killed at the Siege of Crema in 1638, the cream of his collection passed to Cardinal de Richelieu, who bequeathed the Supper at Emmaus to the young Louis XIII at the same time as the Palais-Cardinal (later the Palais Royal). Always highly valued, it was moved successively from the Palais-Cardinal to the Palais de Fontainebleau, the Palais des Tuileries and the Château de Versailles. Restored in 2010. (The restorers were accused by art conservation pressure groups, ARIPA and ArtWatch, of altering the facial features of the woman standing on the right with a child in her arms.)
Jove Expelling Crimes and Vices. Canvas, 561 x 330.
Originally the central oval of the ceiling of the Stanza del Consiglio dei Dieci of the Doge’s Palace in Venice. The subject relates to the functions of the Council, which was responsible for law and order. The canvas was painted early in Veronese’s career in Venice (1553-54). In 1797 it was taken to Paris, and in 1810 transferred to Versailles, where it was cut to fit the ceiling of the King’s bedroom. It was returned to the Louvre in 1858.
St Mark crowning the Theological Virtues. Canvas, 337 x 317.
Originally the central square of the ceiling of the Sala della Bussola of the Doge’s Palace. According to Vasari, it was painted by Veronese and Zelotti, but it is usually considered the work of Veronese alone. It probably dates from 1553-54. Like the Jove Expelling Crimes and Vices, it was taken to France in 1797 and installed in a ceiling at Versailles. Transferred to the Louvre in 1861.
Wedding at Cana. Canvas, 666 x 990.
This huge picture, crowded with around 130 figures, was commissioned in June 1562 for the refectory of the Benedictine monastery on the Venetian island of San Giorgio Maggiore. One of the earliest of Veronese’s great Feasts, it was finished by 6 October 1563, when Veronese received final payment of 324 ducats and a cask of wine. It was plundered by French troops in 1797, cut in half, rolled up and shipped to Paris. In 1815, the Commissioners, concerned at the difficulties of transporting the canvas back to Italy, exchanged it for Le Brun’s Supper at the House of Simon (which Ruskin said was worth ‘precisely what its canvas may now be worth to make a packing case of it’). Immediately above Christ, butchers prepare a lamb for the feast – an allusion to Christ’s future sacrifice. The guests at the feast are said to be contemporary rulers, including Don Alfonso d’Avalos and Eleonore of Austria on the extreme left as bride and groom, Mary Tudor, Francis I of France, Charles V, Suleyman the Magnificent and the Marchesa di Pesara with a toothpick. The bearded master of ceremonies could be Pietro Aretino. According to Boschini (1674), the musicians in the centre foreground are portraits of artists: the elderly Titian, in red damask, plays the contra base, Tintoretto plays the violin, Bassano the flute, and Veronese himself the viola. The standing cupbearer in brocade robes to the right is identified by Zanetti (1733) as a portrait of Veronese’s brother Benedetto. The painting was removed from its frame and rolled up during the Franco-Prussian War (when it was packed in a trunk at Brest) and again during the Second World War (when it was driven around in a truck to keep it from the Germans). It was restored in 1989-92 at a cost of $1 million. After the restoration, it was seriously damaged in two separate accidents. It was first splattered with rainwater when an air vent leaked during a storm. Then, as it was being raised onto the wall, a scaffolding tower collapsed and projecting metal poles ripped through the canvas in five places (the largest tear was four feet long). In 2007 a full-size facsimile was created on canvas to hang where the painting originally hung in the Palladian refectory at San Giorgio.
Crucifixion. Canvas, 102 x 102.
One of Veronese’s masterpieces in the Louvre. Probably a little later than the large Crucifixion painted by Veronese in 1581-82 for San Niccolò ai Frari (now in the Accademia). The composition is similar, with Christ on the cross seen from the side. Acquired by Louis XIV from Jabach in 1662.
‘La Bella Nani’. Canvas, 119 x 103.
The young blond woman wears a magnificent velvet dress, with gold shoulder decoration, cutwork sleeves and a girdle with an enormous gold clasp set with jewels. Her expression is distant, betraying no awareness of the viewer. The picture, in cool blues and silvers, is one of Veronese’s masterpieces in portraiture. It owes its popular name to the fact that it was once identified, without much justification, with a portrait described by Ridolfi (1648) and Boschini (1660) in the Casa Nani at Venice. It may date from around the time of the frescoes at the Villa Barbaro (late 1550s or early 1560s). Cooke (2001) suggested that it could be a portrait of Veronese’s wife, Elena Badile, whom he married in 1566. First certainly recorded in the collection of the Abbé Celotti at Venice, it was later in the collections of Prince Anatole Demidoff (at San Donato, Florence) and Marquise Landolfo-Carcani (Paris), and was given to the Louvre by Baron Schlichting in 1914.
Portrait of a Woman and Child with a Dog. Canvas, 115 x 95.
This informal portrait is described by Ridolfi (1648) in the Bevilacqua collection at Verona, which was housed in the family’s ornate palazzo on the Corso designed by Sanmichele in the 1530s. The sitter was once supposed to be a daughter of Francesco Bevilacqua, but has been recently identified as Isabella Guerrieri Gonzaga Canossa (the Canossa were related to the Bevilacqua). Isabella was widowed in 1541, and if she were the sitter the portrait would have to be very early (around 1546-48), whereas some critics have considered it a mature work of the late 1550s or 1560s. Removed to France on the orders of Napoleon in 1797.
Christ revives the Daughter of Jairus. Paper on canvas, 42 x 37.
Jairus was 'one of the rulers of the synogogue'; the miracle of Christ raising his twelve-year-old daughter from the dead is related in Mark's Gospel (5, 22-43). This little oil sketch was in the collection of Count Brienne in 1662 and was acquired by Louis XIV from Jabach in 1671 (the subject was then unknown). In 1927 Adolfo Venturi recognised that it was a modello for a lost picture from the Avanzi Chapel in the church of San Bernardino in Verona. The picture, which was one of Veronese’s earliest works, disappeared in 1697 when the Viennese art dealer Pietro Strudem bribed the monks to replace it with a copy. It was a pendant to a canvas by Veronese’s teacher Antonio Badile, which is dated 1546.
Seven Planetary Gods. Fresco on canvas, 350 x 265.
Removed from the ceiling of the Sala Meridionale in the Palazzo Trevisan at Murano. Very damaged, restored and divided into two parts. On one part, Venus, Saturn and Mercury; and on the other, Jove, Apollo and Mars.
Susanna and the Elders (198 x 198); Esther and Ahasuerus (198 x 306).
Two of a set of four canvases, now of varying shapes and sizes, depicting heroines from the Old Testament. The other two are at Caen (Judith and Holofernes) and Versailles (Eliezer and Rebecca). The two Louvre paintings were originally the same size and have been substantially cut down. The Susanna has lost around 120 cm. from its width, and both pictures have lost around 40 cm. from their height. The complete set of four canvases is mentioned by Ridolfi (1648) in the Casa Bonaldi at Venice. Acquired by Louis XIV from Jabach in 1662. The execution is usually ascribed, at least in part, to Veronese’s workshop or to Benedetto Caliari.
Flight of Lot. Canvas, 93 x 120.
A replica, from Veronese’s workshop, of a much larger painting at Vienna. The Vienna picture was part of a cycle of ten biblical scenes (the so-called ‘Duke of Buckingham series’), but the Louvre version is not known to have belonged to a similar series. Seized by revolutionaries in 1796 from the collection of the Duc d’Orléans at the Château de Monceaux.
Christ under the Cross. Canvas, 57 x 73.
Often consigned (perhaps harshly) to Veronese’s workshop. Acquired by Louis XIV in 1671 from ‘Sieur de La Feuille’.
Paris. Château de Versailles. Salon d’Hercule.
Feast in the House of Simon. Canvas, 454 x 874.
This huge picture was painted for the refectory of the monastery of Santa Maria dei Servi in Venice, where it was mentioned as a work of Veronese by Ridolfi in 1648. Given by the Venetian Republic to Louis XIV in 1664 as a diplomatic gift. Originally displayed in the Galerie d’Apollon, it was installed in the Salon d’Hercule in 1730. It was transferred to the Louvre in 1832, but returned to Versailles in 1961. Restored in 1994-97. Similarities with the Feast of St Gregory (Monte Berico, Vicenza) and Christ in the House of Levy (Venice Accademia) suggest that it was painted around 1572-73. Workshop participation seems inevitable for a canvas of such size, with some critics seeing the hand of Benedetto Caliari.
Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well. Canvas, 366 x 240.
On the opposite wall, over the monumental fireplace. From a series of four canvases depicting Old Testament heroines; two of the others are in the Louvre and one is at Caen. It has been enlarged.
Philadelphia. Museum of Art (J. G. Johnson Collection).
Portrait of a Contarini Admiral. Canvas, 126 x 113.
On the breastplate are painted the Lion of St Mark and the arms of the Contarini family. The sitter appears, a little older and in civilian satin and furs, in a portrait at Dresden, said to represent Alessandro Contarini. Usually dated to the 1550s. Once at Hamilton Palace, it was sold in London in 1882 (as a Titian) and acquired by Johnson in 1895.
Praglia (near Abano Terme). Abbey.
Glory of Angels. Canvas, 350 x 190.
Four angels, who have put down their musical instruments and scores, gaze heavenwards as two other angels descend with branches of palm and olive. One of two altarpieces commissioned by Abbot Placido da Marostica in about 1562 for the abbey church of Santa Maria Assunta. Now in the abbey’s museum, it originally hung in the right side chapel. The companion altarpiece is in the Museo Civico at Padua.
Prague. Prague Castle Gallery.
Portrait of Jacob König. Canvas, 83 x 74.
The subject’s name, nationality and profession are inscribed along the top. Signed on the left. Hans Jacob König (or Kinig) was a German goldsmith who worked in Venice and Florence in the 1570s. He bought works of art for Rudolph II and eventually settled in Prague. The portrait has been recorded at Prague Castle since 1685.
Washing of the Feet; Adoration of Shepherds. Canvas, 139 x 283/284.
These two pictures are from a major series of ten canvases illustrating scenes from the Old and New Testaments. First recorded in 1613 in an inventory of the estate of Charles III de Croy and later (by 1635) in the collection of the Duke of Buckingham, the entire series was acquired by Archduke Leopold Wilhem at Antwerp in 1648. The pictures remained together until 1723, when two were taken from Prague Castle to Vienna. Six more followed in 1876. The two pictures that remained at Prague were rediscovered in 1963, after passing under various attributions. They are considered late works of the 1580s. The Washing of the Feet has sometimes been judged substantially autograph, while the Adoration may have been merely ‘supervised’ by Veronese.
St Catherine with an Angel. Canvas, 72 x 54.
Recorded at Prague Castle since 1685. It was set into the wood panelling of the staterooms of the Imperial Palace and its width altered. Previously repainted, it was restored in 1962-63. Late (about 1580).
Raleigh (North Carolina). Museum of Art.
Baptism of Christ. Canvas, 86 x 117.
Critical opinion of this picture has been divided. Some critics (Shapley in 1973 and Cocke in 1984) have considered it a school work, while others (including Pignatti and Pedrocco in their 1995 monograph on Veronese) have judged it an autograph early picture (about 1550). The poses of Christ and the Baptist are repeated in an altarpiece in the Redentore, Venice. First recorded early in the nineteenth century in the Palazzo Stigliano, Naples. Allocated to the Raleigh Museum by the Kress Foundation in 1960.
Rennes. Musée des Beaux-Arts.
Perseus and Andromeda. Canvas, 260 x 211.
The composition is evidently based on Titian’s picture for Philip II of Spain (now in the Wallace Collection). Veronese has reversed Titian’s composition, which shows Andromeda bound to the rock on the left and the airborne Perseus on the right. Veronese’s picture is first recorded in the collection of Nicolas Fourquet, the French finance minister, which was impounded in 1662 when Fourquet was accused of embezzlement. Acquired by Louis XIV in 1665, it hung at Versailles until the end of the seventeenth century and was then moved to the Château de Meudon (acquired by Louis XIV in 1695). Sent to Rennes by 1801.
Rimini. San Giuliano.
Martyrdom of St Julian. Canvas, 325 x 175.
Over the high altar, above the Roman sarcophagus said to contain the body of St Julian. A late work (about 1580), executed partly by Veronese’s workshop (Benedetto Caliari(?)). Restored in 1991.
Rome. Galleria Borghese.
Saint John the Baptist. Canvas, 208 x 140.
The Baptist addresses a group of priests and Levites richly dressed in Oriental costume; Christ appears, lower left, in fulfilment of his prophecy. To judge from its size and format, the picture was probably painted as an altarpiece, and its low horizon line suggests that it was intended to be hung rather high. It was given to Cardinal Scipone Borghese in 1607 by the Patriarch of Aquileia, Francesco Barbaro, Daniele Barbaro’s nephew.
St Anthony Preaching to the Fishes. Canvas, 112 x 157.
St Anthony (1195-1231) was Portuguese by birth, but is called of Padua because it was where he spent his latter years and where his relics are preserved. According to legend, he preached to the fishes when the population of Rimini had refused to listen to him. In Veronese’s picture, the saint, towering over the other figures on the seashore, points out to sea, where the fish have risen to the surface to listen to his sermon. A late work, painted in twilight, brownish and greenish tones. Given to Cardinal Scipone Borghese in 1607 by the Patriarch of Aquileia.
Rome. Pinacoteca Capitoline.
Peace; Constancy. Canvas, 105 x 64.
Peace sets fire to a pile of military equipment, and Constancy (alternatively called Temperance, Harmony or Good Administration) holds a ship’s rudder. The two canvases, which were originally oval, were evidently part of a ceiling decoration. The Allegory in the Vatican Gallery was the centrepiece. Marinelli (1980) suggested that the three canvases came from the Palazzo da Porta, though this has sometimes been doubted. The palazzo, built at Vicenza to a design of Palladio, was finished in 1552. The canvases were removed in the mid-eighteenth century and replaced by frescoes by Giandomenico Tiepolo. Acquired by Pope Benedict XIV from the Pio da Carpi family.
Rome. Galleria Colonna.
Portrait of a Man. Canvas, 125 x 94.
The elegant gentleman, richly dressed in a fur-trimmed coat over a doublet of shimmering blue silk, poses with his hand on his hip in front of a heavy green curtain. This fine portrait is probably a late work of the 1580s. It entered the Colonna collection with the inheritance of Caterina Zeffirina Salviati, who married Fabrizio II Colonna in 1718, and it is recorded with an attribution to Veronese in Colonna inventories from the eighteenth century. The subject was once thought (quite improbably) to be the famous condottiere Stefano Colonna.
Rome. Vatican Pinacoteca.
Vision of St Helena. Canvas, 166 x 134.
The True Cross, supported by a putto, appears to the saint as she sleeps. The picture, which was acquired by Pope Benedict XIV from the Pio da Carpi family in the mid-eighteenth century, may date from about 1580. Small for a church altarpiece, it was more probably a private devotional work – possibly painted for a lady called Elena (conceivably even Veronese’s wife Elena Badile). There is a very different, probably earlier, painting of this unusual subject by Veronese in the National Gallery, London.
Allegory of the Liberal Arts. Canvas, 105 x 105.
The female figure on the right wears a laurel wreath and presumably represents Poetry; she is accompanied by a putto holding a picture and an architect holding a plan. This octagonal canvas was clearly the centre of a ceiling decoration, which also included two canvases in the Capitoline Gallery. They may have come from a small room, perhaps a study, in the Palazzo da Porta at Vicenza, which was decorated by Veronese, Zelotti and other artists in 1551-52. Acquired by the Vatican Museum from the Sacchetti family of Rome.
Rotterdam. Boymans van Beuningen Museum.
Portrait of a Boy. Canvas, 31 x 22.
The year 1558 is inscribed top left and the sitter’s age, 13 or 15, top right. Before the War, this charming portrait was in the huge collection of the Dutch art dealer Jacques Goudstikker in Amsterdam. Acquired in 1958.
Supper at Emmaus. Canvas, 66 x 79.
A smaller version of the picture at Dresden, which is in turn a variant of the central part of the famous painting in the Louvre. Noted by Ridolfi (1648) in the Muselli collection at Verona. Subsequently in the Orléans collection in Paris, the Duke of Sutherland’s collection in London, and the collection of the banker Stefan von Auspitz in Vienna. When Auspitz’s bank failed in 1931, his collection was seized by the Austrian government and sold to Daniel George van Beuningen.
Rouen. Musée des Beaux-Arts.
Miracle of St Barnabas. Canvas, 260 x 193.
The saint cures a cripple by laying the Gospel of St Matthew on his head. From the church of San Giorgio in Braida, Verona, where it hung beneath the organ. Probably painted around 1566, when Veronese completed the Martyrdom of St George for the high altar of the church. Removed on Napoleon’s orders in 1797, and given to the City of Rouen in 1803.
Risen Christ with SS. Roch and Sebastian. Canvas, 340 x 220.
SS. Roch and Sebastian implore Christ in the heavens to stop the plague. The altarpiece from the main chapel of the Jesuit church of San Rocco at Parma. The church is shown under construction in the background. A very late work (the altar was consecrated in 1589), executed partly by Veronese’s workshop (the upper part has been ascribed to Carletto Caliari). Removed to Paris in 1797 and deposited at Rouen in 1803.
St Petersburg. Hermitage.
Holy Family with St Catherine. Canvas, 146 x 205.
A very early work (about 1548), close in style to the Bevilacqua-Lazise Altarpiece in Verona (which has almost identical figures of angels). Acquired by Catherine II of Russia in 1772 from the Crozat collection.
Pietà with the Madonna and an Angel. Canvas, 147 x 112.
Painted for the church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo in Venice, where it is recorded by Borghini in 1584. X-rays show the head of a second angel on the left, which was painted out by Veronese himself. The picture was removed from the church in the seventeenth century and acquired by Catherine II from the Crozat collection. It must date from before 1582, when it was one of six painting by Veronese engraved by Agostino Carracci. The composition is related to that of the Dead Christ in Ottawa – a fragment of an altarpiece dating from about 1563. There is a smaller variant, in which a second angel takes the place of the Virgin, at Boston.
Diana the Huntress. Canvas, 28 x 16.
This small canvas and the Minerva now in Moscow were in the possession of a Veronese physician named Curtoni at the end of the seventeenth century. They were bought by the Duke of Mirandola in 1718, and later acquired by Catherine II from the Crozat collection. A third canvas from the series, representing Painting, is in Detroit.
Crucifixion (Nailing to the Cross). Parchment (now mounted on panel), 16 x 20.
The attribution of this tiny picture to Veronese is traditional and seems never to have been doubted. The composition draws on a woodcut of the Nailing to the Cross in Dürer’s Small Passion series. From the Crozat collection.
Adoration of the Magi. Copper (transferred from panel), 45 x 35.
The composition of this small picture is closely related to that of a large canvas painted by Veronese in 1581-82 for the church of San Niccolò ai Frari (now mounted on the ceiling of the Cappella del Rosario in SS. Giovanni e Paolo). First recorded in France in the seventeenth century, when it is said to have been surreptitiously taken by the Chevalier d’Avice from the collection of Maréchal Duplessis-Plaslin and replaced by a copy. Yet another of the pictures acquired by Catherine II in 1772 with the Crozat collection.
Raising of Lazarus. Canvas, 260 x 246.
A grisaille (a technique very rarely used by Veronese). Previously completely unknown, the picture was in very poor condition when it was transferred to the Hermitage from the St Petersburg Academy of Arts in 1931. Restoration in 1973 revealed Veronese’s signature and the date 1584 (lower left).
Portrait of a Man (so-called Self-Portrait). Canvas, 63 x 51.
The man, shown bust-length against a plain background (now greenish-brown), is probably in his thirties, has short-cropped hair and full beard, and wears a dark tunic buttoned high at the neck. The portrait has been claimed to be of Veronese himself, but the resemblance with other presumed self-portraits of the artist (such as the man playing the viola in the Louvre Wedding at Cana and the hunter in the Villa Barbaro at Maser) is weak. Acquired as a work of Veronese in the late eighteenth century – and not (as usually stated) with the Barbarigo collection in 1850. It is one of only twenty independent portraits presented as autograph in John Garton’s 2008 book on Veronese’s portraits. However, Xavier Salomon (in a book review in the August 2008 Burlington Magazine) describes it as ‘rigid and unaccomplished’.
San Diego. Museum of Art.
Apollo and Daphne. Canvas, 109 x 113.
Apollo, about to rape the nymph, checks in astonishment as she is transformed into a laurel tree. In the nineteenth century, the picture was in the Earl of Yarborough’s collection in London and at Brocklesby Park. It was left to the San Diego Museum in 1945 with the Putnam collection, and in the same year was published as a work of Veronese in Wilhelm Suida’s 1945 monograph on the artist. Once considered an early work, it is now usually dated to the mid-1570s.
‘Sacra Conversazione’. Canvas, 103 x 157.
The Christ Child leans towards St Giustina (or Catherine); St Elizabeth, on the left, rolls swaddling clothes. Perhaps a picture noted by Ridolfi (1648) as still with Veronese’s heirs. It seems to have passed through the hands of the Venetian dealer Abate Luigi Celotti, was sold in Paris in 1831, and was later in small English private collections. Acquired by the Putnam Foundation in 1956. Comparison with an engraving by Courtois reveals that the picture has been cut down at both top and bottom. According to Pignatti and Pedrocco (1995), it was executed by a workshop collaborator (perhaps Benedetto Caliari) from Veronese’s design.
San Francisco. De Young Memorial Museum.
Mocking of Christ. Canvas, 114 x 137.
A very late work, recalling Titian’s great Crowning with Thorns at Munich. Little is known of the history of the picture, which was published as a work of Veronese only in 1961 (by Wilhelm Suida in Arte Veneta) and is on loan to the museum from the Stauffer-Sigall Foundation.
Sarasota. Ringling Museum.
Rest on the Flight into Egypt. Canvas, 236 x 161.
The Holy Family, resting under a palm tree, are helped by angels, who pick dates from the tree, groom the donkey and wash the linen. Signed on the rock beneath the Virgin. The picture is not mentioned in early sources, and was probably an altarpiece from a provincial church. By 1778 it was in the collection of the Elector Palatine at Düsseldorf. Sold by the Alte Pinakothek at Munich (where it was catalogued as a work of Carletto Caliari) in 1926. There is a horizontal variant at Ottawa.
Portrait of Francesco Franceschini. Canvas, 188 x 135.
This rather worn portrait is inscribed at the base of the column with the name of the sitter – a nobleman from Vicenza – and the date 1551. It is the earliest dated portrait attributed to Veronese. Formerly in the collection of the Marchese Pallavicini at Genoa and then the Holford collection at Westonbirt, with an attribution to Romanino. Attributed to Veronese in 1928 by Brizio (L’Arte) and Adolfo Venturi (Veronese). It has also been attributed (eg. by W. R. Rearick (1990)) to Domenico Brusasorci, an older painter from Verona.
Seattle. Art Museum.
Venus and Adonis. Canvas, 225 x 168.
Signed on the rock on the right. Probably the ‘new conception by Veronese of Adonis with Venus and Eros, who is holding back a greyhound’ mentioned by Ridolfi (1648) as acquired by Monseigneur de Housset, the French ambassador. By 1860, it was in the Cook collection at Richmond. Acquired by Samuel H. Kress in 1948 from Contini Bonacossi. Somewhat abraded (eg. in the faces and bodies), it was long ascribed to Veronese’s studio or school, but is now commonly accepted as an autograph work of about 1580.
Stamford. Burghley House.
Saint James; Saint Augustine. Canvas, each 200 x 85.
From the church of San Giacomo on the island of Murano. They decorated the shutters of the organ, and would have been seen when the shutters were open. The reverse sides showed the Mystical Marriage of St Catherine (last recorded in 1778, when they were sold by Lord Clive at Christie’s for 21 gns). The two canvases have been cut down by perhaps 10 cm. on all sides, removing part of the architectural setting. They hang in the private apartments (Red Drawing Room).
Christ with Zebedee’s Wife and Sons. Canvas, 270 x 150.
Painted for the high altar of the church of San Giacomo. Acquired, along with the two organ shutters, by the 9th Earl of Exeter in 1769. Veronese’s paintings for the church were described in 1646 by Carlo Ridolfi and probably date from 1577-78. They also included, for two side altars, a Visitation (now in the Barber Institute at Birmingham) and a Resurrection (now in the Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London). The pictures have sometimes been attributed to the artist’s studio or (specifically) Benedetto Caliari. Installed in the chapel at Burghley House.
Rebecca at the Well. Canvas, 105 x 130.
Rebecca is offered jewels by Eliezer and his two servants and fastens a bracelet round her wrist. Cut down substantially on the right (where only the head remains of the camel being flogged by a groom). One of several paintings of this subject by Veronese and his workshop; there are others, all of different designs, at Washington (from the ‘Duke of Buckingham series’ of ten biblical scenes), at Versailles (from a set of four canvases depicting Old Testament heroines) and in the Earl of Yarborough’s collection at Brocklesby Park. Usually called a studio work, but championed as an autograph late Veronese of around 1583-84 by Roger Rearick in his catalogue to the 1988-89 exhibition at Washington. In the collection of the Earls of Exeter since the eighteenth century. Hung in the private apartments.
Strasbourg. Musée des Beaux-Arts.
Cephalus and Procris. Canvas, 162 x 190.
According to the classical story (told by Ovid both in Ars Armatoria and Metamorphoses) Procris gave her husband Cephalus a magic dog and a magic spear; Procris, thinking Cephalus unfaithful, hid in a bush, where Cephalus killed her by mistake with the spear while out hunting. A companion painting to the Venus and Adonis in Madrid. They are late works; Borghini described them in 1584 as having been painted recently. They remained in Venice until about 1650, when Velázquez acquired them both for the Spanish royal collection. During the French occupation of Spain, the Cephalus and Procris fell into the hands of Joseph Bonaparte. After passing through private collections in England and Germany, it was acquired by the Strasbourg Museum in 1912.
Tokyo. National Museum of Western Art.
Mystical Marriage of St Catherine. Canvas, 84 x 100.
St Joseph behind St Catherine, and the infant Baptist with the lamb in the bottom left corner. The picture is a comparatively recent discovery. Previously in a private collection in Switzerland, it was restored in 1987 at the Metropolitan Museum, New York. Cleaning revealed, beneath overpaint, the shield in the upper left corner bearing the coats-of-arms of the Pindemonte (pine trees) and Torre (tower) families of Verona. As recognised by Diana Gisolfi (November 1995 Burlington Magazine), the picture was almost certainly commissioned to celebrate the marriage of Giambattista di Pindemonte and Anna della Torre in 1547. It is therefore one of Veronese’s very earliest dateable works. X-rays made in 1987 revealed the rubbed-down figure of a man or youth kneeling on the right, behind St Catherine. It is uncertain whether this figure was part of the original composition. The picture was bought by the Tokyo museum in 1994.
Turin. Galleria Sabauda.
Feast in the House of Simon. Canvas, 315 x 451.
From the refectory of the Benedictine monastery of SS. Celso e Nazaro, Verona. It is Veronese’s earliest surviving large supper scene. Ridolfi says that it was painted in 1560, when Veronese visited his parents in Verona. However, it could be slightly earlier, and a payment of 1556 may refer to the picture as work in progress. It was sold in 1646 to the monks of the Spinola, Genoa, for 8,000 ducats. It was acquired by Carlo Felice of Savoy in 1824, and taken to Turin by Carlo Alberto in 1837 and displayed in the Palazzo Madama. There is a copy by Tiepolo, commissioned by Algarotti, in the National Gallery of Ireland.
Queen of Sheba before Solomon. Canvas, 344 x 545.
Painted for Duke Carlo Emanuele I of Savoy, who is probably portrayed as the youthful Solomon. The picture must date between 1580, when the eighteen-year-old Carlo Emanuele acceded to the Dukedom, and 1584, when it is mentioned in Borghini’s Riposo. The execution may be largely by Veronese’s workshop.
Finding of Moses. Canvas, 337 x 510.
Generally assumed to have been painted for Duke Carlo Emanuele I of Savoy at the same time as the Queen of Sheba before Solomon. Usually considered to be a workshop production after Veronese’s own design, and the execution has sometimes been ascribed to Benedetto Caliari. The composition appears to have been influenced by Raphael’s fresco in the vaulting of the Vatican Loggia. Three other pictures painted for Duke Carlo Emanuele (an Adoration of the Magi, a David with the Head of Goliath and a Judith) are presumed lost. Cut down by around 35 centimetres on the left.
Mars and Venus. Canvas, 47 x 47.
In a humorous treatment of the subject, Cupid interrupts the lovers by leading Mars’ warhorse into their bedroom. Possibly the picture noted by Ridolfi in the house of Cristoforo Orsetti at Venice. It once belonged to the painter Sir Thomas Lawrence in England. It was given to the Italian State with the Gualino collection, and it hung for a time in the Italian Embassy in London, before entering the Sabauda Gallery in 1945. Opinions on dating range from the early 1560s to the 1580s.
Madonna enthroned with Saints ('Pala Bonaldi'). Canvas, 339 x 191.
The Holy Family is raised up on a pedestal; Saints Giustina, Francis and Jerome stand beneath. The picture was commissioned by Francesco Bonaldi, a procurator of San Marco, as the altarpiece for his funerary chapel in the sacristy of the Venetian church of San Zaccaria. It probably dates from around 1562, when the sacristy was restored. Francis and Jerome were the name saints of Bonaldi and of his brother Girolamo (who had recently died). The picture entered the Accademia in 1815, on its return from Paris where it had been taken in 1797.
Allegory of the Battle of Lépanto. Canvas, 169 x 137.
In the clouds above the battle, Saints Peter (representing the Papacy), James (representing Spain), Giustina (on whose feast day the battle took place) and Mark (patron of Venice) pray to the Virgin for victory. The great sea battle took place on 7 October 1571. The picture was probably painted shortly afterwards for Pietro Giustinian of Murano, who took part in the battle. Until 1812 it hung to the left of the altar of the Rosary in the church of San Pietro Martire at Murano.
Feast in the House of Levy. Canvas, 555 x 1280.
This vast picture – the largest of all Veronese’s feast scenes – is divided like a triptych by the great arches of an imaginary loggia; Christ sits in the very centre between SS. Peter and John, with Judas and the host on the other side of the table. It was painted for the refectory of the Dominican convent of SS. Giovanni e Paolo to replace a painting of the Last Supper by Titian destroyed in 1571 by a fire. The patron, Andrea de’ Buoni (or Buono) was a friar staying at the monastery as a guest. The picture is dated 20 April 1571. On the 18 July of that year, Veronese was summoned before a tribunal of the Inquisition accused of indecorum through the introduction of ‘drunken buffoons, armed Germans, dwarfs and other vulgarities’ into his canvas. He was ordered to make appropriate corrections to the composition within three months at his own expense, but his famous response was simply to add an inscription which retitled the painting Feast in the House of Levi – a subject that required ‘a great company of publicans and sinners’. Taken to Paris in 1797, but returned to Venice in 1815.
Ceres renders Homage to Venice. Canvas, 309 x 328.
Venice, personified as a beautiful woman, receives homage from Ceres, goddess of the corn-bearing earth, and Hercules. Painted in about 1574-75 for the ceiling of the Magistrato delle Biade (the ministry responsible for the importation, storage and sale of grain) in the Doge’s Palace. Moved to the Libreria Sansoviniana in 1792, the Palazzo Reale in 1810, and finally the Accademia in 1895.
Marriage of St Catherine. Canvas, 337 x 241.
The Virgin, seated to the side on a high podium and surrounded by angels, holds the Child towards the kneeling saint, who extends her hand to receive the ring. The cherubs in the sky hold a crown and martyr’s palm. One of Veronese’s most richly-painted canvases. In a famous description, Marco Boschini (1660) wrote: ‘ It is almost as if the painter to create his effects used gold, pearls and rubies, emeralds and sapphires, and purist, most perfect diamonds’. Until 1925 the picture still stood on the high altar of the church of Santa Caterina. It was probably painted in about 1575.
Saint Jerome. Canvas, 231 x 147.
The saint, identified by his cardinal’s hat, lion and books, meditates on a crucifix and beats his breast with a stone. From the early Gothic church of Sant’Andrea della Zirada, where it is recorded by Ridolfi in 1648. The church, near the modern bus station in Piazzale Roma, was largely abandoned during the Second World War and is now a sculptor's studio. The picture, which had been badly affected by mould, was removed in 1971 and has been exhibited at the Accademia since restoration in 1988. Comparatively late (about 1580). It is undoubtedly the finest of Veronese’s paintings of this subject. There are others (all different in design) in the church of San Pietro Martire on the island of Murano and at Chicago and Washington.
Annunciation. Canvas, 267 x 543.
The splendid Palladian loggia encloses the Virgin's symbolic garden (hortus conclusus). This huge horizontal canvas was painted around 1578 for the Scuola dei Mercanti (a devotional guild of wealthy merchants). It is recorded in October 1581 hanging above the door of the Scuola's guildhall – which still stands, next to the church of the Madonna dell'Orto in Cannaregio. The coat-of-arms of the Scuola appear on the central arch, the arms of the Cadrabazza and Cottoni families on the bases of the columns. Veronese's canvas was part of a cycle, illustrating the Life of the Virgin, which also included paintings by Jacopo and Domenico Tintoretto and Veronese's brother Benedetto. Transferred to the Accademia in 1812 during the Napoleonic suppressions. Restored in 2007.
Crucifixion. Canvas, 287 x 497.
One of a series of eleven canvases painted by Veronese and his workshop for the small church of San Niccolò ai Frari (or San Niccolò della Lattuga), which was reconsecrated on 17 October 1582. The church (which was next to the great Franciscan basilica of the Frari) was stripped of its pictures in 1806, turned into tenements for a time and eventually pulled down. There is a large Baptism and Temptation of Christ in the Brera, and other canvases from the series in the Chapel of the Rosary in SS. Giovanni e Paolo and in the Cini Foundation. The oblique setting of the crosses, with Christ seen from the side, and the dramatic sky were repeated in a smaller Crucifixion by Veronese in the Louvre.
St Francis receives the Stigmata. Canvas, 256 x 432.
Painted in about 1582 for the ceiling of San Niccolò ai Frari. Returned to Venice from Vienna in 1919.
St Nicholas welcomed by the People of Myra. Canvas, 198 in dia.
A fragment (only the central part remains) of another of the canvases painted for the ceiling of San Niccolò ai Frari. Transferred to the Accademia in 1817.
Assumption of the Virgin (no. 430). Canvas, 392 x 200.
The awe-struck figures crowding round the empty sarcophagus (raised above a flight of steps and a balustrade) include the eleven apostles, Mary Magdalene (left centre) and probably Mary Salome (kneeling on the steps). The bearded man in red (to the right behind John the Evangelist) has been supposed to be a self-portrait, but seems more likely to be a portrait of the donor. This tall picture was the high altarpiece of the Venetian church of Santa Maria Maggiore. A very late work, it was probably commissioned shortly after March 1584, when the ducal secretary Simone Lando left a thousand scudi in his will to embellish the choir of the church. Ridolfi (1648) records four other paintings by Veronese in the church, including the beautiful Agony in the Garden (now in the Brera). The Assumption was one of many pictures sent to the Accademia in 1812, following the Napoleonic suppressions. Rather neglected in the past, it benefited from cleaning in 1988.
Coronation of the Virgin (no. 392). Canvas, 396 x 219.
The Virgin is crowned Queen of Heaven by God the Father and the Son, while the dove of the Holy Spirit hovers above. The lower two-thirds of the painting is entirely taken up by a great throng of saints, many of which can be identified by their attributes. Painted for the high altar of the Venetian church of Ognissanti (which was stripped of its pictures in 1806). A very late work: the church was consecrated on 21 July 1586. It was often judged harshly in the past, with attributions to Veronese’s workshop (or to Francesco Montemezzano). Veronese was certainly responsible for the design, as there are preparatory studies by his hand at Oxford (Christ Church) and elsewhere. Restored in 1988 for an exhibition at the Accademia marking the four hundredth anniversary of Veronese’s death.
‘Madonna del Rosario’. Canvas, 171 x 318.
Above, the Madonna and Child in the heavens; below, St Dominic distributes roses to kneeling worshippers, including the Emperor, Pope and Doge. Dated 1573 in the inscription on the throne. Painted for the altar of the Confraternita del Rosario in the church of San Pietro Martire on Murano. Taken from the church in 1807 and placed
initially in the Palazzo Reale. Deposited in 1932 with the Museo Vetrario on Murano. The execution has been ascribed to Veronese’s workshop or Benedetto Caliari.
Venice. Palazzo Ducale.
Anticamera of Sala del Collegio.
Rape of Europa. Canvas, 240 x 303.
Zeus, in the form of a white bull, carried off Europa from her native Phoenica to Crete, where she became the mother of Minos, Rhadamanthus and Sarpendon. The story of the seduction is continued in the small separate scenes in the middle distance and background, where the nymph is carried out to sea. The subject was popularised by Titian, whose version of 1562 is in the Gardner Museum, Boston. Veronese’s version was painted in 1573 for Giacomo Contarini, whose descendant Bertucci Contarini presented it to the Venetian Republic in 1713. Removed to Paris on the orders of Napoleon in 1797 but returned in 1815. It is the only mythological picture by Veronese left in Venice. There are many sixteenth-century copies and variants, some from Veronese’s own workshop.
Sala del Collegio.
Votive picture of Doge Sebastiano Venier. Canvas, 285 x 565.
Venier had been one of the commanders at the Battle of Lépanto and wears armour under his ducal robes. He is recommended to the Saviour by St Mark. Behind St Mark stands St Giustina of Padua, and behind her St Catherine holding the ducal crown. The Doge is supported by the hero of the battle, Agostino Barbarigo, who holds the banner of St George. The canvas hangs above the throne where the Doge, surrounded by the Council, received the ambassadors. Venier was Doge in 1577-78 and the picture was probably painted a few years later (about 1581-82). The brilliance of the colouring was revealed in a restoration of 1983.
The original decoration of the room was destroyed by fire in 1574. The redecoration started straight away; payment for the work started in January 1575 and continued until 1577. The woodwork is by Francesco Bello. All the ceiling paintings are by Veronese and his workshop. The allegorical subjects allude to the functions of the Collegio. Faith (in the centre) refers to its responsibility for religion, Mars and Neptune (at the near end) to its role as Ministry of War, and Justice and Peace (at the far end) to its legislative function. Along the sides are four pairs of allegorical female figures of the Virtues, representing (reading from the entrance) Liberality, Fortune, Industry, Moderation, Vigilance, Mildness, Prosperity and Faith.
Stanza del Consiglio dei Dieci.
The central oval of Jove Expelling Crimes and Virtues is a nineteenth-century copy by Andrea di Jacopo of Veronese’s original, which was taken to Paris in 1797 and is now in the Louvre. Just two or three of the other twenty-four ceiling canvases are by Veronese. Youth and Age (286 x 150) is the oval canvas in the right-hand farther corner of the ceiling. The old man in eastern costume, whose massive form recalls Michelangelo’s Sistine frescoes, peers down at a beautiful young woman who modestly covers herself. The rectangular canvas of Juno bestowing Gifts on Venice (365 x 147) is in the centre of the left-hand side. It was taken by the French in 1797 and given to the City of Brussels but returned in 1920. The rectangular canvas of Venice (or Justice or Liberty) breaking Her Chains (147 x 365) at the far end of the room is ascribed either to Veronese or Zelotti. The remaining canvases are ascribed to Zelotti and Giovanni Battista Ponchino (a painter from Castelfranco). The rooms of the Council of Ten were built under Doge Francesco Donato (1545-53), and the richly carved and gilded wooden ceiling was finished by 1553. The ceiling canvases were Veronese’s first state commission in Venice. They were still being painted in 1556, when Sansovino refers to them. According to Sansovino, the allegorical themes were determined by Daniele Barbaro.
Sala della Bussola.
The central square of St Mark crowning the Theological Virtues is a nineteenth-century copy by Giulio Carlini of Veronese’s original, which is in the Louvre. The other eighteen compartments (with triumphal processions, war scenes, figures of Victory and Fame and lion’s heads painted in green monochrome) are by Veronese or his workshop. On the evidence of the coat-of-arms over the door, the room was decorated under Doge Marcantonio Trevisan (1553-54).
Stanza dei Tre Capi.
This ceiling also dates from the mid-1550s. Only two of the eleven canvases are by Veronese: the Triumph of Nemesis or Punishment of the Forger (295 x165) on the left above the window and the Triumph of Virtue (295 x 165) to the right of the door. The others are by Zelotti and Ponchino.
Sala del Maggior Consiglio.
Venice Triumphant. Oval ceiling canvas, 904 x 580.
The huge painting is the central decoration of the ceiling, above the ducal throne. Venice, in the clouds and flanked by allegorical figures, is crowned by an angel under an open portico supported by twisted columns; behind her are the twin towers of the Arsenal; below is a terrace packed with jubilant Venetians; and lower still are soldiers on prancing horses. The original ceiling was destroyed by fire in 1577. It was replaced by a deeply carved and gilded wooden framework constructed by Cristoforo Sorte between 1579 and 1582. The ceiling paintings were underway by 1582 and finished by 1584. Venice Triumphant was painted by Veronese with the help of assistants (particularly Benedetto Caliari). It is flanked by two canvases from Veronese’s workshop: the Conquest of Smyrna by Paolo Mocenigo and the Defence of Scutari by Antonio Loredano.
Venice. Libreria Vecchia.
Three Ceiling Tondi. Canvas, 230 in dia.
The three tondi, representing Arithmetic and Geometry(?), Music and Honour, are the sixth row of canvases from the entrance. They were painted by Veronese between August 1556 and February 1557 for the ceiling of Sansovino’s new library. Giuseppe Salviati, Schiavone and Zelotti were among the six other artists involved in the decoration. According to early sources, Titian and Sansovino chose Veronese’s Music as the best canvas in the series, for which he was awarded a gold chain by the procurators.
Two Philosophers. Canvas, each 250 x 160.
Veronese also painted two of the philosophers in simulated niches around the walls. These have been identified as Plato and Aristotle.
Venice. Seminario Patriarcale.
Glory. Detached fresco, 122 x 175.
The allegorical female figure, reclining on top of a rusticated arch, is identified as Gloria by an inscription. The faded frescoed lunette bears Veronese's signature (Paulus) and the date1551. It came from the Villa Soranzo, near Castelfranco, which was designed by Sanmicheli and decorated by the young Veronese in collaboration with Giovan Battista Zelotti and Anselmo Canneri. 118 fragments of fresco were reportedly removed from the villa shortly before the villa was demolished in 1818. Some fragments were given to Castelfranco Cathedral. Others were sold and are now scattered across different collections.
Venice. Fondazione Cini.
Isaiah; Ezechiel. Canvas, 256/253 x 66/67.
These two monochrome figures of Old Testament prophets came from the church of San Niccolò ai Frari, where they hung on either side of the high altar. Veronese’s many paintings for the church date from about 1581-82; the others are dispersed between the Accademia and Brera galleries and the church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo.
Baptism of Christ. Canvas, 204 x 102.
Commissioned by Bartolomeo Stravazino, who is portrayed with his son Giovanni in the bottom right corner, for the Cappella di San Giovanni, near the church. The chapel, which was consecrated in 1561, was demolished about a century later. The painting is now in the sacristy of the church (rarely open).
Another Baptism in the church (over an altar on the right) is signed by the ‘heirs of Paolo Veronese’.
Venice. San Francesco della Vigna.
Holy Family with Saints. Canvas, 313 x 190.
The composition, with the Madonna enthroned on a high pedestal off to the right, was inspired by Titian’s Pesaro Madonna of 1519-26. The two saints standing below are Catherine and Anthony Abbot. Painted for the Giustiniani Chapel of the church (fifth on the left of the nave). The inscriptions recording the chapel’s dedication are dated 1551. This is sometimes taken to be the date of the picture, although Veronese was apparently still living in Verona at that time. Exceptionally well preserved.
Resurrection. Canvas, 325 x 160.
The altarpiece has always remained in the Badoer Chapel (fourth on the right side). It must have been painted by 1584, as it is one of the two pictures by Veronese in the church mentioned by Borghini in that year. It is not well preserved, and the attribution has sometimes been doubted.
Venice. San Giacomo dell’Orio. North transept.
SS. Jerome, Lawrence and Prospero. Canvas, 270 x 145.
St Jerome, dressed as a cardinal, is seated on the left with his lion. St Lawrence, dressed as a deacon, is in the centre, reading from an enormous book of scripture held up by a choirboy. (The object behind him is a gridiron standing on its end.) St Prospero, dressed as a bishop, stands on the right, gazing up at an angel descending with palm branches. The altarpiece was painted for the Malipiero Chapel of the church. It was probably commissioned by Laura Barbarigo, whose husband Gerolamo Malipiero had died in December 1572. It originally had a predella illustrating the martyrdoms of the three saints. The picture is much restored (the sky is now a dark greenish blue) and the execution appears to be at least partly by Veronese’s workshop.
Venice. SS. Giovanni e Paolo. Cappella del Rosario.
The ceiling of the chapel is divided into two parts. Three large oval canvases in the nave represent the Assumption of the Virgin (762 x 432), Adoration of the Shepherds (340 x 455) and Annunciation 340 x 455). They were painted for the Jesuit church of Santa Maria dell’Umilta, which stood on the Zattere in what is now the garden of the Seminario Patriarcale. They must have been completed by 1568, when Vasari refers to them in the second edition of his Lives. The convent was closed in 1806, and in 1838 the three canvases were removed and taken to the Vienna Gallery. They were returned to Venice in 1919. Their present frame was carved by Carlo Lorenzetti in 1932. The large horizontal canvases hanging on the side walls below are attributed to Benedetto Caliari (Last Supper) and Carletto Caliari (Christ and Veronica).
The ceiling paintings in the presbytery of the chapel (the Adoration of the Magi in the centre and the Evangelists in the four corners) are also by Veronese and his workshop. They were painted around 1581-82 for the ex-church of San Niccolò ai Frari, which was stripped of its pictures in 1806. They were mounted on the ceiling in 1929.
Adoration of the Shepherds. Canvas, 350 x 290.
This lovely picture hangs on the end wall to the left of the entrance. It was painted for the altar of the Scuola dei Tessitori di Seta (confraternity of silk weavers) in the church of the Crociferi (now Gesuiti). It was seen in situ by the Dutch painter Pieter Lastman, whose pen-and-ink drawing of it (around 1603-5) is preserved in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.
The original decoration of the chapel, which included a ceiling painting of the Madonna of the Rosary by Tintoretto, was destroyed by fire in 1867.
Venice. San Giuliano (San Zulian). 1st south altar.
Pietà with SS. Mark, James and Jerome. Canvas, 365 x 181.
Painted for the merchant Cavalier Girolamo Vignola. Vignola died in 1585 and the altarpiece is probably just a year or two earlier. The St Jerome is possibly a portrait of him. The upper section, with the tragic image of the Dead Christ supported by two angels, is similar to the Pietà in Ottawa (a fragment from the top of an altarpiece).
Venice. San Giuseppe di Castello (Sant’Isepo).
Adoration of the Shepherds. Canvas, 375 x 182.
A late work, commissioned in May 1582 and delivered in November 1583. The kneeling St Jerome on the left is thought to be a portrait of Gerolamo Grimani. Previously in a poor state, it was restored to something closer to its original appearance in the 1970s.
Venice. San Lazzaro dei Mendicanti (now incorporated into the civic hospital).
Crucifixion with the Virgin and St John. Canvas, 305 x 165.
Painted for the Ospedale degli Incurabili, which was situated in a convent on the Zattere. Probably a comparatively late work; but no later than 1581, when it is mentioned in Francesco Sansovino’s Città Nobilissima e Singolare. The painting was long neglected, and it was only after restoration for the 1939 Veronese exhibition in Venice that its quality was recognised. The simple, symmetrical composition (with the cross in the centre of the painting and the grieving Virgin and St John standing at the sides) and dark dramatic sky recall Titian’s Crucifixion of 1558 in Ancona. (The church is rarely open, except for services.)
Venice. San Luca. High altar.
St Luke in Ecstasy. Canvas, 340 x 206.
The Madonna appears to the Evangelist, who is seated on an ox. A late work, probably painted in about 1581, when the church was renovated. Workshop participation has sometimes been suspected, particularly in the upper part. Much damaged.
Venice. Santa Maria del Carmelo.
Holy Family with St John. Canvas, 105 x 112.
Comparatively early (mid-1550s?). Recently transferred from the nearby church of San Barnaba. It is believed to be the picture noted by Ridolfi (1648) in the church of the Maddalena at Padua.
Venice. San Pantalon.
St Pantaleon healing a Child. Canvas, 277 x 160.
St Pantaleon (his name means ‘all-compassionate’) was an early Christian martyr whose shrine at Ravello was famous for healing the sick. The picture shows his conversion. Moved by the plight of a boy dying from a reptile bite, he converts to Christianity on condition that God promises to bring the child back to life. The boy is supported by Bartolommeo Borghi, the parish priest who commissioned the work in 1587. It is Veronese’s last work that can be dated with certainty. The picture, now in the dark third chapel on the right side, originally hung over the high altar of the church, which was rebuilt in 1732.
Venice. San Pietro in Castello.
SS. John the Evangelist, Paul and Peter. Canvas, 320 x 155.
St John, with his eagle, chalice and Gospel, looks up at an angel; St Paul holds his Epistles; and St Peter clasps the keys to heaven. Painted for Giovanni Trevisan, 13th Patriarch of Venice, to hang above the altar he had dedicated to St John the Evangelist. The altar was completed by 1581. The picture now hangs on the wall of the north aisle. Attributed either to Veronese or to a member of his workshop (such as Francesco Montemezzano). Restored in 2004.
Venice. San Sebastiano.
Veronese worked in the small church, decorating almost every aspect of its interior, over almost twenty years, starting in 1555 and continuing until at least 1570. He was given the commission by Fra Bernardo Torlioni, Prior of the Hieronymite monastery, who was from Verona. Veronese lived in the salizzada neighbouring the church, and he is buried with his brother Benedetto in the chapel to the north of the choir. A major restoration of the ceiling canvases and wall frescoes – the first since the 1960s – got underway in 2007.
Sacristy. Ceiling. Coronation of the Virgin. Canvas, 200 x 170.
The Four Evangelists witness the Coronation from surrounding balustrades; a series of scenes from the Old Testament complete the decoration. One of the earliest of Veronese’s works in Venice, completed on 23 November 1555 (the date recorded on a tondo in one of the corners). .
Nave. Ceiling. Story of Esther. Canvas.
Veronese signed the contract for the ceiling paintings on 1 December 1555 and received final payment on 31 October 1556. The three canvases represent the Coronation of Esther (300 x 300) in the central square, the Repudiation of Vashti (410 x 295) in the oval near the main entrance, and the Triumph of Mordecai (410 x 295) in the oval near the high altar. They appear to have been painted largely or entirely by Veronese himself. The ceiling itself is decorated with paintings by Veronese and his workshop (including Benedetto Caliari and Giovanni Antonio Fasolo) of putti holding swags of fruit, virtues in the corner tondi and victories in the spandrels. Restoration in 2008-10 removed old varnish and revealed Veronese’s original skies, which had been overpainted in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. (Unfortunately, the smalt blue used by Veronese has discoloured irreversibly to a pale grey.)
Nuns’ Choir. Trial and Martyrdom of St Sebastian. Frescoes.
The two largest scenes (350 x 480) are St Sebastian before Diocletian and the Martyrdom of St Sebastian by Beating. The frescoes were painted by Veronese and Benedetto Caliari in 1558. Some of them were restored by Sebastiano Ricci. In the major current restoration of the church, work on the frescoes was completed in 2014.
Organ Shutters. Canvas, 490 x 185.
The organ was designed by Veronese. Work began in 1558, and Veronese received final payment for his canvases for the shutters in April 1560. The Purification of the Virgin is on the outside and the Pool of Bethesda on the inside. A Nativity decorates the front of the organ loft. Restoration of the organ loft and shutters was completed in 2016.
Presbytery. St Onofrio; St Paul the Hermit. Frescoes, 280 x 90.
Veronese was commissioned to decorate the presbytery in 1558, and the work was probably done in 1561. Most of the frescoes were destroyed when the cupola was rebuilt.
High Altar. Apotheosis of St Sebastian. Canvas, 420 x 230.
The Madonna appears to St Sebastian, surrounded by SS. Peter, Francis, John the Baptist and Catherine. St Francis is said to be a portrait of Bernardo Torlioni, the Hieronymite Prior of San Sebastiano who was from Verona. The high altar was built by Salvador Tagiapietra between 1559 and 1561 to a design of Veronese. The altarpiece was probably painted slightly later (perhaps in 1565 when Veronese received payment for unspecified work for the church).
Choir. Martyrdom of SS. Mark and Marcellian; Martyrdom of St Sebastian. Canvas, each 355 x 450.
In the picture to the left of the choir, St Sebastian, in Roman dress and clasping a banner, exhorts the twins Mark and Marcellian to their martyrdom, while their mother at the top of the steps begs them to recant and live. In the picture to the right, St Sebastian is being bound before being beaten to death with clubs. His twisting pose seems to have been inspired by Titian’s Martyrdom of St Lawrence in the Gesuiti. The picture has been badly affected by oxidisation, which has turned the sky brown.
Third left altar. Madonna with St Catherine and Donor. Canvas, 56 x 67.
The donor is identified by Ridolfi (1648) as Frate Michele Spaventi of the parish of San Sebastiano who was later rector of the church. His initials appear on the cushion on which the Madonna supports the Child. The picture was probably painted in or shortly after 1558, when Frate Spaventi moved to Venice from Treviso.
Fourth right altar. Crucifixion. Canvas, 260 x 125.
Painted for the altar of the Garzoni family. The last of Veronese’s works in the church, perhaps dating from shortly before 1581, when it is mentioned in Francesco Sansovino’s Venetia: Città Nobilissima e Singolare.
Madonna and Child with SS. John the Baptist and Louis ('Pala Bevilacqua Lazise'). Canvas, 233 x 172.
This damaged altarpiece is the first work of Veronese listed by Ridolfi. Painted, when Veronese was about twenty years old, in or shortly after 1548, when the chapel for which it was painted in San Fermo Maggiore was founded. The chapel was built by Lucrezia Malaspina, wife of Giovanni Bevilacqua Lazise. (Veronese was distantly related to the Bevilacqua Lazise family through his mother.) The husband and wife are portrayed as donors in the bottom two corners of the picture. Transferred to the museum in 1865. Restored in 1980. There is an oil study for the altarpiece in the Uffizi.
Deposition. Canvas, 76 x 117.
The mourners include the turbaned Nicodemus (supporting the dead Christ), the white-bearded Joseph of Arimathea (possibly a portrait of the donor), Mary Magdalene (kneeling at Christ’s feet), and the two other ‘Maries’ (one supporting the fainting Virgin). From the Hieronymite monastery of Santa Maria della Vittoria in Verona. Removed from there to Paris in 1797 and returned to Verona in 1816. A range of datings can be found in the earlier literature, but the painting is now usually considered to be one of Veronese’s earliest works, contemporary with the Bevilacqua-Lazise Altarpiece of about 1548.
Episodes from the Story of Esther. Three canvases, 24/26 x 29/31.
The three small paintings, clearly from the same series, have been attributed to Veronese as very early works. One, somewhat damaged and slightly trimmed, came from the Bernasconi collection at Verona. Its subject has been interpreted as Haman ordering the persecution of the Jews or Moredecai summoned before King Ahasuerus. The imposing city in the background is probably intended to be Susa. The other two canvases were formerly in the London collection of David Carritt, an art critic and dealer. Following the 1980 exhibition Palladio e Verona, they were acquired by the Italian state and allocated to the Verona museum. One represents the punishment of the eunuchs and the other Esther before Ahasuerus. The series must have included other canvases, now lost.
Verona. San Giorgio in Braida.
Martyrdom of St George. Canvas, 425 x 305.
The saint, stripped of his armour, looks up at a putto, who flies down from heaven with the crown and palm of martyrdom. Behind him, a pagan priest points to the statue of Apollo that he had refused to worship and an executioner stands with a great sword. On the clouds above, the Virgin, St Peter and St Paul, and female figures of Faith, Hope and Charity are seated in a circle. The huge painting is still in situ over the high altar, splendidly framed in an aedicule with double Corinthian columns designed by Sanmicheli. The altar was constructed by 1564. The picture is traditionally dated 1566; a preparatory drawing bears the date 1565. Removed to Paris in 1797. Veronese’s Miracle of San Barnabas, taken from the church at the same time, was not returned and is now in the gallery at Rouen. Cleaned in 1988.
Verona. San Polo.
Madonna and Child with Saints (‘Pala Marogna’). Canvas, 338 x 208.
Commissioned by the brothers Antonio Maria and Giambattista Marogna of Verona, who are portrayed on the left being presented to the Virgin by their patron saints, Anthony and John the Baptist. The Marogna family chapel was built in 1565, which is the probable date of the picture.
Verona. Palazzo Barbieri. Sala Arazzi.
Feast in the House of Levi. Canvas, 509 x 984.
This huge Feast scene was painted for the refectory of the Servite convent of San Giacomo on the Giudecca. Veronese was probably still alive when the work was begun, and he might just have contributed to the early stages of painting. Payment was made in September 1590 to his "Heirs' (his brother Benedetto and his sons Gabriele and Carletto). The convent was closed in 1806 and the picture became the property of the Accademia. Since 1910 it has been on loan to public buildings in Verona, and since the War it has hung in the Palazzo Barbieri (the seat of local government in the city). Previously much obscured by dirt and old varnish, it was thoroughly restored for the Veronese exhibition held in 2014 at the Palazzo della Gran Guardia.
Vicenza. Museo Civico.
Madonna and Child with St Peter and a Female Saint. Canvas, 119 x 95.
The female saint, wearing a gold crown and holding a white dove and martyr’s palm, is usually identified as Catherine, but has also been called Agnes or Colomba. A variant on two frescoed lunettes of the Holy Family in the Villa Barbaro at Maser. It probably dates from the 1550s. Bequeathed to the museum in 1826 by the Porto Godi family of Vicenza.
Trinity with St Peter and St Paul. Canvas, 225 x 120.
Dated 1573 (lower left). From the church of Santa Croce at Vicenza, where it was described by Boschini (1676) as a work of Carletto Caliari (who was only three years old in 1573). Transferred to the museum after restoration in 1947. The altarpiece is likely to have been painted largely or entirely by Veronese’s workshop (Benedetto Caliari?).
Vicenza. Santa Corona.
Adoration of the Kings. Canvas, 320 x 234.
This richly coloured altarpiece was painted for Marcantonio Cogollo, a wealthy cloth merchant (who is probably portrayed as the grey-bearded spectator standing at the left edge and whose coat-of-arms appears on the mule in the bottom right corner). It hung originally over an altar in the Cappella della Sacra Spina in the apse of the church. It was in situ by March 1574, and must be almost contemporary with a similar picture (dated 1573) in the National Gallery, London. Taken to the Brera during the Napoleonic occupation, and badly restored. The picture now hangs in the late eighteenth-century Cappella di San Giuseppe (third chapel on the right).
Vicenza. Monte Berico.
Feast of St Gregory. Canvas, 477 x 862.
According to legend, when Pope Gregory invited twelve beggars to eat at his table, Christ appeared in the guise of a thirteenth, producing a silver porringer which Gregory had given to a beggar when a humble monk. The picture was painted in Venice for the refectory of the Servite monastery in 1572. The architectural setting – with flanking double staircases leading up to the triple arcade of an open loggia – is very similar to that of the even larger Christ in the House of Levy (Accademia, Venice), which is dated the following year. It was removed to the Brera in 1798, but returned to Vicenza in 1817. In 1848 it was terribly damaged by the Austrians, who cut the picture first into five or six large pieces and then into thirty-two smaller ones. It was reassembled in the 1850s and restored in 1973.
Vienna. Kunsthistorisches Museum.
Christ healing a Woman with an Issue of Blood. Canvas, 102 x 136.
The story of the miracle is told in Matthew, IX. The picture may date from about 1570. It is recorded in the 1659 inventory of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm’s collection.
Judith with the Head of Holofernes. Canvas, 111 x 101.
The picture may have been substantially cut down; other versions of this subject by Veronese (at Caen and Genoa) show the figures full length. It probably dates from the late 1570s or early 1580s. It has been tentatively suggested that it could be a fragment of the lost Judith painted by Veronese for Carlo Emanuele I of Savoy. First definitely recorded in Archduke Leopold Wilhelm’s collection.
Deianira and Nessus. Canvas, 68 x 53.
The story of Deianira and Nessus is told in Ovid’s Metamorphoses. The centaur Nessus carried the beautiful Deianira across the stream of the Evenus and then attempted to rape her. Hercules, seeing this, killed Nessus with a poisoned arrow. In 1636 the picture and its pendant, Adonis and Venus, were in Bartolommeo della Nave’s collection at Venice; they were acquired by the English ambassador Basil Fielding for his brother-in-law the Duke of Hamilton, whose celebrated collection was dispersed during the Civil War; and by 1659 they were in Archduke Leopold Wilhelm’s collection.
Adonis and Venus. Canvas, 68 x 52.
A pendant to the Deianira and Nessus. This more familiar subject, also from the Metamorphoses, was painted by Veronese several times. Comparatively late (probably 1580s).
Lucrezia. Canvas, 109 x 90.
The Roman heroine, adorned with pearls and gold bracelets and draped in rich brocade, stabs herself after the rape. Very late (mid-1580s). Recorded as by Veronese in the 1659 inventory of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm’s collection, but later ascribed to Leandro Bassano (1733 inventory), Paolo Farinati (Berenson (1907)) and Veronese’s workshop. It is only since Pignatti’s 1976 monograph that it has been generally accepted as fully autograph.
The Anoiting of David. Canvas, 173 x 365.
Once attributed to Zelotti or to Farinati, but now regarded as an early work of Veronese (1550s). In the Duke of Buckingham’s collection, which was sold at Antwerp in 1648; acquired by Archduke Leopold Wilhelm for his brother Emperor Ferdinand III at Prague.
Marco Curzio. Canvas, 222 in dia.
This circular canvas is probably from a ceiling. Attributed to Veronese in the 1659 inventory of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm’s collection. Probably early.
Seven Biblical Subjects. Canvas, about 140 x 285.
Seven of a series of ten canvases, five illustrating scenes from the Old Testament and five from the New Testament. Two of the other scenes are in Prague and one is in Washington (sold by the Kunsthistorisches Museum in 1952). The patron of the canvases, and their original function and location, remain a mystery. The series is first recorded in 1613 in an inventory of the estate of Charles III de Croy at Beaumont Castle in Hainaut (southern Netherlands). It then appears in the 1635 inventory of the Duke of Buckingham’s collection at York House in the Strand. When the Duke’s estate was sequestered by Parliament in 1648, a loyal family servant succeeded in sending the ten pictures and others to Antwerp, where they were acquired by Archduke Leopold Wilhelm. The canvases at Vienna were transferred from Prague Castle in 1723 and 1876. It is generally agreed that they are late works of the 1580s; but they vary widely in quality of execution, and there is a wide range of opinion as to which are autograph and which are studio pieces. Veronese has sometimes been credited with the complete execution of the Hager in the Desert, while the other canvases at Vienna have usually been assigned at least partly to assistants.
Martyrdom and Last Communion of St Lucy. Canvas, 140 x 173.
In an unusual treatment of the martyrdom, the saint turns her head to receive communion from a priest as the executor plunges a dagger into her heart. In the left distance, a team of oxen tries to drag the miraculously immovable saint to a brothel. The fire behind her on the right alludes to her thwarted martyrdom by burning. Rapidly executed and with the muted tonality of Veronese’s late pictures, it may date from the early 1580s. It was bought in Venice for Sir William Forbes of Fettercairn by 1827, and remained with his descendants for almost 150 years. It was little known until 1960, when it was loaned by Miss Diana Cinderella Bowes-Lyons (a niece of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother) to the Italian Art and Britain exhibition at the Royal Academy. Sold at Christie’s in 1971, and bought by the National Gallery in 1984 from Matthiesen Fine Art.
Rebecca at the Well. Canvas, 146 x 283.
The subject is from Genesis: Rebecca offers water to Abraham’s servant Eliezer, who recognises her as Isaac’s appointed bride and presents her with the betrothal jewels. From the cycle of ten religious canvases known as the ‘Duke of Buckingham series’ after the English nobleman who owned them in the early seventeenth century. Seven of the other canvases are in Vienna and two in Prague. The Rebecca at the Well is considered one of the best in the series, which was probably painted by Veronese and his workshop in the 1580s. At Vienna until 1952, when it was acquired by Kress from Knoedler’s of New York.
Annunciation. Canvas, 98 x 75.
One of several versions of the Annunciation by Veronese, his studio or school.
This example is probably fairly late (about 1580?), and was probably painted with some studio assistance. First recorded in 1743, when it was sold in Paris with the collection of the Prince de Carignan. It then had a Noli Me Tangere as a pendant. From 1806 until 1924, it was in the collection of the Marquesses (later Dukes) of Westminster. Acquired by the Detroit banker Julius H. Haass in 1925 and by the Kress Foundation in 1957.
Saint Lucy with a Donor. Canvas, 181 x 115.
Sometimes identified with the Saint Lucy that Ridolfi says Veronese painted for the Compagnia della Croce in Belluno (the church was demolished in the early nineteenth century). However, Ridolfi’s brief reference might equally apply to the Martyrdom and Last Communion of St Lucy, also at Washington. Probably a late workshop collaboration (perhaps with Benedetto Caliari). From the Earl of Northesk’s collection at Ethie Castle, Arbroath; sold at Christie’s in 1925; and one of sixteen paintings bought by Kress in 1954 from Contini Bonacossi.
Finding of Moses. Canvas, 58 x 45.
A replica, almost identical except for Pharaoh’s daughter’s costume, of the painting in the Prado. Both versions may have been in the collection of Charles I of England. The Washington one was bought for Catherine the Great in 1772 at the Paris sale of the estate of the painter Louis-Michel van Loo. It was one of twenty-one paintings sold by the Soviet government in 1930-31 to US Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon for $6.65 million. Mellon’s paintings were donated to the Washington gallery in 1937.
Saint Jerome in the Desert. Canvas, 108 x 84.
Sometimes identified (probably wrongly) with the Saint Jerome mentioned by seventeenth-century sources (Ridolfi and Boschini) hanging over a door in the sacristy of the church of San Sebastiano at Venice. It was certainly owned by the painter Sir Peter Lely, and was included in the posthumous sale in 1682 of property from his house in Convent Garden. Bought by the Earl of Kent, it passed by inheritance to Baron Lucas of Crudwell in the early twentieth century, and then belonged for a time to the great Veronese expert Baron Detlev von Hadeln. One of sixteen paintings acquired by Kress in 1954 from Contini Bonacossi. In 2003, it was placed on loan with the Birmingham Museum of Art (Alabama). Occasional doubts about the attribution may reflect the abraded condition of much of the surface. The painting has been dated about 1580 in gallery catalogues, but earlier datings have also been proposed.
Worcester (Massachusetts). Art Museum.
Venus disarming Cupid. Canvas, 159 x 138.
The painting is a relatively recent discovery. It was bought at Christie's in 1990 for almost $3 million by the New York collector Hester Diamond. Though described in the sale catalogue as from the 'Circle of François Boucher', it was recognised as a work of Veronese before the auction and subsequently included in Pignatti and Pedrocco's L'Opera Completa (1991). It has been dated around 1560. Mrs Diamond loaned the picture to the Metropolitan Museum, New York, in 2006 and bequeathed it to the Worcester museum in 2013.
St Gregory; St Jerome. Canvas, 78/77 x 35.
These two small pictures were probably oil sketches (modelli) for the doors of an organ. Late (about 1580?). Once in the collection of Sir Charles Eastlake, they remained in England until 1955, when they were sold at Sotheby’s. They came to the museum from the Koetser Gallery in Zurich.